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শুক্রবার, ৪ মে, ২০১৮

postheadericon Right Form of Verbs-এর ৫০+ নিয়ম (৫+ উদাহরণ ও সুন্দর ব্যখ্যা সহ )


ইংরেজি ভাষায় একটি Sentence এ ব্যবহূত প্রতিটি word-ই কোনো না কোনো কাজ করে থাকে। প্রতিটি word-এর মধ্যে Verb সবচেয়ে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। সাধারণত যে word দ্বারা কোনো কিছু করা, হওয়া, থাকা, বোঝায় তাকে verb বলে। Verb is the heart of Sentence. তাই Verb কে বাক্যের প্রাণ বলা হয়ে থাকে। Latin শব্দ verbal থেকে এই শব্দটির উৎপত্তি। বাক্য গঠনশৈলীতে Noun-এর পরই Verb এর স্থান। এই Verb, Noun, Pronoun এবং Object কে বিশেষভাবে গতিশীল করে রাখে। Verb ছাড়া কোনো Sentence তৈরি করা যায় না। Verbগুলো সাধারণত Voice, Tense, Mood, Narrarion and Sentence পরিবর্তনে সহায়তা করে থাকে। একটি Sentence এ দুই ধরনের Verb ব্যবহূত হতে পারে। যেমন, Principal verb and Auxiliary verb.
Principal Verb: যে Verb-এর নিজস্ব অর্থ থাকে না, বিভিন্ন প্রকাশের জন্য অন্যের ওপর নির্ভর করতে হয় না, তাকে Principal Verb বলে।
Example : Rana writes an application.
Auxiliary Verb : যে verb-এর নিজস্ব অর্থ থাকে না, বিভিন্ন প্রকার Sentence অথবা Tense, Voice বা Mood-এর রূপ গঠনের জন্য অন্য verb কে সাহায্য করে থাকে তাকে Auxiliary Verb বলে।
Example : Rana is writing an application.
মনে রাখতে হবে যে কোনো কোনো সময় একই verb, principle and Auxiliary দুভাবেই ব্যবহূত হতে পারে। যেমন, I am a student. এখানে ‘am’ Principle verb.
আবার, I am writing a letter. এখানে ‘am’ Auxiliary verb.
Principle Verb and Auxiliary Verb ছাড়াও Finite Verb, Non-Finite Verb, Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb রয়েছে, এগুলো গঠনের ক্ষেত্রে অগ্রণী ভূমিকা পালন করে থাকে।

🎯 Rule-1: Sentence যদি Present Indefinite tense হয় এবং Subject Third Person singular number হয়, তবে verb-এর সঙ্গে s/es যুক্ত হবে।
She (write) a letter.
Ans : She writes a letter.
The baby (cry).
Ans : The baby cries.
The boy (go) — to school regularly.
The boy goes to school regularly.
The boy does not (go) — to school daily.
The boy does not go to school daily.
The boy generally (go) — to college at 8 a.m.
The boy generally goes to college at 8 a.m.
Try yourself :
Mr. Khan (go) — abroad every month.
His father (come) — home every week.

🎯 Rule-2: Present indefinite tense-Subject third person singular number হওয়া সত্ত্বেও can, must, should-এর পরে verb-এর সঙ্গে s/es যোগ হবে না।
The man can (do) — the work.
The man can do the work.
She must (come) — to her office in time.
She must come to her office in time.
The student should (learn) — his lessons regularly.
The student should learn his lessons regularly.
Try yourself :
He can (walk) — five miles at a time.
The girl must not (go) — to college on foot.

🎯 Rule-3: Sentence যদি universal truth (চিরন্তন সত্য), Habitual fact (অভ্যাসগত কর্ম) ইত্যাদি বোঝায় তাহলে sentenceটি Present Indefinite Tense হয়। যেমন,
The earth (move) — round the sun.
The earth moves round the sun.
The sun (rise) — the east.
The sun rises in the east.
The sun (set) — the west.
The sun sets in the west.
Try yourself :
We know that ice (float) — water.
The teacher said that the earth (be) — round.

🎯 Rule-4: কোনো Sentence-এ যদি sometimes, often, always, regularly, daily, everyday, usually, generally, normally, ordinarily, occasionally ইত্যাদি থাকে এবং নিদিষ্ট কোনো সময়ের উল্লেখ না খাকে, তবে Sentenceটি Present Indefinite হবে।
Usually father (walk) in the morning.
Ans : Usually father walks in the morning.
He (get) up early in the morning everyday.
Ans : He gets up early in the morning everyday.
Anwar sometimes (work) in his flower garden.
Ans : Anwar sometimes works in his flower garden.
Sabiha (learn) — her lessons regularly.
Sabiha learns her lessons regularly.
He always (disturb) — the students.
He always disturbs the students.
A good student (learn) — his lessons regularly.
A good student learns his lessons regularly.
Try yourself :
Rahman very often (come) — me.
Does he (read) — the newspaper daily?

🎯 Rule-5: বর্তমানে চলছে এমন কোনো কাজ বোঝালে present Continuous Tense হয়। (এসব ক্ষেত্রে সাধারণত Now, at present, at this moment ইত্যাদি ব্যবহার করা হয়)।
Now the students (sing) — the national anthem.
Now the students are singing the national anthem.
The boys (watch) — the television now.
The boys are watching the television now.
They (enjoy) — a song now.
They are enjoying a song now.
Try yourself :
They (watch) — TV at this moment.
The farmer (cultivate) — his land now.

🎯 Rule-6: Sentence-have/has থাকলে Sentenceটি present perfect Tense হবে। যেমন,
She has (write) — a letter to her mother.
She has written a letter to her mother.
I have (have) — my meal.
I have had my meal.
She had (have) — her letter.
She had had her letter.
Try yourself :
Have you ever (be) — to the zoo?
Colombus has (discover) — America.

🎯 Rule-7: কোনো Sentence-এ যদি already, yet, ever, just, just now, recently, lately, recently, today, this week/year, in the mean time, never, ever ইত্যাদি যুক্ত থাকে, তাহলে Sentenceটি Present perfect tense হবে।
Have you ever (be) to Cox-Bazar?
Ans : Have you ever been to Cox-Bazar?
I (receive) the letter just now.
Ans : I have received the letter just now.
He (join) there recently.
Ans : He has joined there recently.
I (not see) you this week.
Ans : I have not seen you this week.
Rabeya (take) — her dinner just now.
Rabeya has taken her dinner just now.
I (see) — him recently.
I have seen him recently.
He already (reach) — home.
He has already reached home.
Try yourself :
Have you ever (be) — to the zoo?
Have you not (receive) — my letter yet?
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🎯 Rule- 8: Sentence-each, every, everyone, anyone, any, many a, everybody, every thing, anybody, nobody, no one, nothing, anything, something, someone, one of, either, neither ইতাদি থাকলে verb-এর Singular Number হয়। যেমন,
Every mother (love)__ her child.
Every mother loves her child.
One of the students (be)__ very brilliant.
One of the students is/was very brilliant.
Each of the boys (be)__present yesterday.
Each of the boys was present yesterday.
Try yourself :
Many a boy (ruin)__his career through laziness.
Neither of the two boys (be) ….. present today.

🎯 Rule- 9: একই দৈর্ঘ্য পরিমাণ বা স্থান বোঝালে Subject দেখতে Plural হলেও verb-এর Singular Number হয়।
Previously fifty miles (be) — a long way.
Previously fifty miles was a long way.
Twenty miles (be) — not a great distance now a days.
Twenty miles is not a great distance now a days.
Sixty cents (be) — was enough for him.
Sixty cents is/was was enough for him.
Try yourself:
Twenty dollars (be) — not sufficient in time.
Fifty cents (be) — enough at that time.

🎯 Rule-10: Yesterday, ago, long since, long before, last night, last weak, last month, day before yesterday ইত্যাদি অতীত সূচক শব্দ বা Phrase sentence-এ থাকলে Past Indefinite tense অর্থাৎ Verb-এর Past form হয়।
I (draw) a picture yesterday.
Ans : 1 drew a picture yesterday.
I (get) the parcel last month.
Ans : I got the parcel last month.
You (visit) there long before.
Ans : You visited there long before.
The boy (go) — home yesterday.
The boy went home yesterday.
She did not (go) — to college yesterday.
She did not go to college yesterday.
Did he (come) — home yesterday?
Did he come home yesterday?
Try yourself :
The man (go) — London last week.
He (leave) — home last night.

🎯 Rule-11: সাধারণত tomorrow, the after tomorrow, next, in future, in the time to come ইত্যাদি ভবিষ্যৎ নির্দেশক বাক্য word/phrase থাকলে verb-এর future indefinite tense হয়। যেমন:
We (not go) there in future.
Ans : We shall not go there in future.
Neela (come) from Dhaka the day after tomorrow.
Ans : Neela will come from Dhaka the day after tomorrow.

🎯 Rule-12: Before দ্বারা দুটি Past tense যুক্ত থাকলে before-এর আগের অংশে Past perfect tense-এর পরের অংশ Past Indefinite tense হয়।
We (reach) our school before the bell rang.
Ans : We had reached our school before the bell rang.
The patient had died before the doctor (come).
Ans : The patient had died before the doctor came.

🎯 Rule-13: After দ্বারা দুটি Past tense যুক্ত থাকলে এর আগের অংশ Past Indefinite tense এবং পরের অংশ Past perfect tense হয়।
They arrived the station after the train (leave).
Ans : They arrived the station after the train had left.
The patient (die) after the doctor had come.
Ans : The patient died after the doctor had come.

🎯 Rule-14: No sooner had — than, Scarcely had — when, Hardly had — when: প্রথম অংশ Past perfect tense অনুযায়ী হয় অর্থাৎ Verb-এর Past participle form হবে। দ্বিতীয় অংশ Past Indefinite tense অনুযায়ী হয় অর্থাৎ Verb-এর Past form হয়।
No sooner had the bell (ring) than the teacher (enter) the classroom.
Ans : No sooner had the bell rung than the teacher entered the classroom.
Scarcely had he (arrive) at the bus stand when the bus (leave).
Ans : Scarcely had he arrived at the bus stand when the bus left.
Hardly had the snatcher (take) the chain when he (run) away.
Ans : Hardly had the snatcher taken the chain when he ran away.

🎯 Rule-15: সাধারণত Since দ্বারা দুটি Clause যুক্ত থাকলে এবং Since-এর আগের অংশ Present Indefinite/Present perfect tense হলে পরের অংশ Past Indefinite tense হয়। যেমন:
It is many years since he (give) up smoking.
Ans : It is many years since he gave up smoking.
Five years have passed since he (leave) the house.
Ans : Five years have passed since he left the house.

🎯 Rule-16: আবার Since দ্বারা Clause যুক্ত থাকলে এবং Since-এর আগে Clause বা বাক্যের অংশ Past Indefinite tense হলে পরের অংশ Verb-এর Past perfect tense হয়।
Many years passed since I (meet) him last.
Ans : Many years passed since I had met him last.
It was many years since I (visit) there.
Ans : It was many years since I had visited there.

🎯 Rule-17: Passive voice-এ সর্বদা Verb-এর Past participle form হয়।
This work was (do) by him.
Ans : This work was done by him.
The problem has been (solve) by him.
Ans : The problem has been solved by him.
The school was (close) for sine die.
Ans : The school was closed for sine die.

🎯 Rule-18: Simple Sentence-এ দুটি Verb থাকলে দ্বিতীয় Verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যোগ হয় অথবা দ্বিতীয় Verb টির আগে to বসে।
He saw the boy (play) in the field.
Ans : He saw the boy playing in the field.
I heard him (speak).
Ans : I heard him speaking.
He helps me (make) the house.
Ans : He helps me making the house.
Note :দ্বিতীয় Verb টি যদি উদ্দেশ্য বোঝাতে ব্যবহূত হয়, তবে দ্বিতীয় Verb-এর আগে to বসে।
I went to the library (read) newspaper.
Ans : I went to the library to read newspaper.
He repaired the boat (sell) it.
Ans : He repaired the boat to sell it.


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🎯 Rule-19: Sentenceটি Active Voice হলে can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, need, dare, used to, ought to প্রভৃতি Modal Auxiliary Verb-এর পরে present form হয়। যেমন,
He can (do) it easily.
Ans : He can do it easily.
Everybody should (respect) his parents.
Ans : Everybody should respect his parents.
It may (rain) today.
Ans : It may rain today.
The boy can (work out) — the sum.
The boy can work out the sum.
He could not (eat) — all the mangoes.
He could not eat all the mangoes.
You must (do) — your duty properly.
You must do your duty properly.
Try yourself :
It may (rain) — today.
One should (take) — care of one’s health.

🎯 Rule-20: Sentenceটি Passive Voice হলে can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, need, dare, used to, ought to প্রভৃতি Modal Auxiliary Verb-এর পরে be+ Verb-এর past participle form হয়। যেমন,
The work can (do) — immediately.
The work can be done immediately.
All the mangoes could (eat) —
All the mangoes could be eaten.
Your duty must (perform) — very soon.
Your duty must be performed very soon.
Try yourself :
It can not (deny) —
The English book will (buy) — tomorrow.

🎯 Rule-21: সাধারণত Sentence-যদি ভবিষ্যৎ নির্দেশক শব্দ বা Phrase যেমন Tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in future, next ইত্যাদি থাকলে Future Indefinite tense হবে এবং Verb-এর Present form বসে।
I (go) to Dhaka tomorrow.
Ans : I shall go to Dhaka tomorrow.
He (join) there the next day.
Ans : He will join there the next day.

🎯 Rule-22: Sentence-এর Subject Singular Number হলে Verb Singular হয় এবং Subject Plural হলে Verb plural Number হয়।
The flowers of the garden (to be) beautiful.
Ans : The flowers of the garden are beautiful.
These papers (to be) printed.
Ans : These papers are printed.

🎯 Rule-23: মূল Verb-এর আগে to be /having/got থাকলে Verb-এর Past participle form হয়।
I do not mind (have) a cup of coffee.
Ans : I do not mind having a cup of coffee.
He went home (have) his salary.
Ans : He went home having his salary.
The thief ran away having (see) — the policeman.
The thief ran away having seen the policeman.
The Principal desired the notice to be (hang)—.
The Principal desired the notice to be hung.
The work is to be (do) — immediately.
The work is to be done immediately.
Try yourself :
I got the letter (write) — by him.
Having (do) — his duty he went out.

🎯 Rule-24: সাধারণত It is time, It is high time, wish, fancy ইত্যাদির পরে Subject bracket এ মূল Verb থাকলে Verb-এর Past form হয়।
It is time you (finish) a course on English language.
Ans : It is time you finished a course on English language.
I wish I (sing).
Ans : I wish I sang.
I wish I (win)__ the first prize in the lottery.
I wish I won the first prize in the lottery.
I fancy I (fly)__ among the stars.
I fancy I flew among the stars.
Try yourself :
I wish I (be)__a rich man.
It is time we (earn)__our livelihood.
আবার, It is time, It is high time, এর পর যদি bracket এ মূল Verb থাকে, তবে ওই এর আগে to বসবে এবং ওই অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। যেমন:
It is time (play).

🎯 Rule-25: ব্রাকেটে (be) থাকলে person, number এবং tense অনুযায়ী am/is/are/was/were/been হবে
Allah (be) — everywhere.
Allah is everywhere.
It (be) — twenty years ago.
It was twenty years ago.
One of my friends (be) — a good student.
One of my friends is/was a good student.
Try yourself :
The tickets of the journey (be) — very costly.
The people of this village (be) — very poor ago.

🎯 Rule-26: As if, as though, wish ইত্যাদি থাকলে Subject-এর পরে be verb-এর পরিবর্তে were বসে।
He behaves as if he (be) a leader. Ans : He behaves as if he were a leader. I wish I (be) a millionaire.
Ans : I wish I were a millionaire.
He speaks as if he (be)__ the owner of the farm.
He speaks as if he were the owner of the farm.
The man speaks as though he (be)__a leader.
The man speaks as though he were a leader.
The man speaks as if he (be) __ a landlord.
The man speaks as if he were a landlord.
Try yourself:
The man speaks as though he (be) __a rich man.
He speaks as if he (be) __ the President of Bangladesh.


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🎯 Rule-27: As if, as though দ্বারা দুটি Clause যুক্ত থাকলে প্রথম Clauseটি Present tense হলে পরবর্তী Clauseটি Past Indefinite হয়। প্রথম Clauseটি Past tense হলে পরের Clauseটি Past perfect tense হয়।
He behaves as if he (buy) the car.
Ans : He behaves as if he bought the car.
He spoke as though he (do) a great task.
Ans : He spoke as though he had done a great task.

🎯 Rule-28: While যুক্ত Sentence-While-এর পরে Verb থাকলে Verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যোগ হয়। আবার
While-এর পরে Subject থাকলে While-এর অংশটি Past continuous tense হয়।
While (take) dinner, he received the phone.
Ans : While taking dinner, he received the phone.
While I (play) in the field, I saw him coming.
Ans : While I was playing in the field, I saw him coming.
While (walk) — in the garden, a snake bit him.
While walking in the garden, a snake bit him.
While he (walk) — in the garden, a snake bit him.
While he was walking in the garden, a snake bit him.
While it (rain) — , I was going to college.
While it was raining, I was going to college.
Try yourself:
While (sleep) — in his room, he dreamt a nice dream.
My uncle arrived while she (cook) — the dinner.

🎯 Rule-29: Lest দ্বারা দুটি Clause যুক্ত থাকলে Lest-এর পরবর্তী Subject-এর সঙ্গে Auxiliary verb should/might বসে।
Read attentively lest you (fail) in the examination.
Ans : Read attentively lest you should fail in the examination.
Walk fast lest you (be) late in your class.
Ans : Walk fast lest you might be late in your class.

🎯 Rule-30: Would that দ্বারা Sentence শুরু হলে Subject-এর পরে could বসে এবং মূল Verb-এর Present
form হয়।
Would that I (be) a bird!
Ans : Would that I could be a bird!
Would that I (visit) Cox’s Bazar
Ans : Would that I could visit Cox’s Bazar!
Would that I (go) — to the moon.
Would that I could go to the moon.
Would that I (be) — a poet like Nazrul.
Would that I could be a poet like Nazrul.
Would that I (enter) — into the class-room.
Would that I could enter into the class-room.
Try yourself :
Would that I (buy) — a latest car.
Would that I (see) — our great Prophet (SM).

🎯 Rule-31: সাধারণত Each, one of, every, either, neither ইত্যাদি দ্বারা কোনো subject-গঠিত হলে সেটি 3rd person singular number হয়; তাই এদের পরের Verbটিও singular number হয়। যেমন,
Each boy (come) here.
Ans : Each boy comes here.
One of them (to be) guilty.
Ans : One of them is guilty.
Everybody (wish) to be happy.
Ans : Everybody wishes to be happy.

🎯 Rule-32: Adjective-এর আগে the বসলে subjectটি Plural হয় এবং তদনুযায়ী Verb বসে।
The virtuous (to be) blessed.
Ans : The virtuous are blessed.
The poor (live) from hand to mouth.
Ans : The poor live from hand to mouth.

🎯 Rule-33: Titles, Names, phrase of measurement দেখতে Plural হলে Singular verb হয়।
Thirty miles (to be) a long way.
Ans : Thirty miles is a long way.
Star wars (to be) an excellent movie.
Ans : Star wars is an excellent movie.
Eight hours (to be) a long time to work.
Ans : Eight hours is a long time to work.

🎯 Rule-34: কোনো Sentence It দ্বারা শুরু হলে পরবর্তী Verb singular হয়।
It (to be) difficult to do.
Ans : It is difficult to do.
It (to be) you .who have done this.
Ans : It is you who have done this.

🎯 Rule-35: কোনো Sentence যদি Introductory There’ দ্বারা শুরু হয় এবং তারপর Singular number থাকে, তবে there-এর Singular verb হয়। আর যদি there-এর পরে Plural Number থাকে, তবে Plural verb হয়।
There (to be) a big river beside our village.
Ans : There was a big river beside our village.
There (to be) a lot of work left for us.
Ans : There were a lot of work left for us.

🎯 Rule-36: Let, had rather, had better, would better, do not, does not, need not, did not, did never ইত্যাদির পরে Verb-এর present form হয়। যেমন,
I would rather die than (beg) .
Ans : I would rather die than beg.
Would you let me (go) there?
Ans : Would you let me go there?
I let the other boys (use) — my skates.
I let the other boys use my skates.
I had better (go) — home by this time.
I had better go home by this time.
I need not (do) — the work.
I need not do the work.
Try yourself :
He did not (go) — to college yesterday.
He does not (like) — student-politics.

🎯 Rule-37: If যুক্ত Clause-এর প্রথম অংশ Present Indefinite tense হলে পরের অংশ Future Indefinite হয় অর্থাৎ Structureটি হয় অর্থাৎ [If +Present Indefinite +Future Indefinite]—
If you work hard, you (prosper) In life.
Ans : If you work hard, you will prosper In life.
If he reads more he (pass) In the examination.
Ans : If he reads more, he will pass in the examination.
If you walk slowly, you (miss) — the train.
If you walk slowly, you will miss the train.
If you run in the rain, you (catch) — cold.
If you run in the rain, you will catch cold.
Try yourself :
I will not go out, if it (rain) —
If he (come) — here, I will go there with him.

🎯 Rule-38: If যুক্ত Clause-এর প্রথম অংশ Indefinite tense হলে পরের অংশ Subject-এর পরে Would/could/might বসে এবং Verb-এর Present form হয়। অর্থাৎ, Structureটি হয়—
If + past indefinite + (subject + would/could/might +verb-এর Present form)
If he agreed, I (give) the money.
Ans : If he agreed, I would give the money.
If you studied, you (get) a good result.
If you studied, you would get a good result.

🎯 Rule-39: If যুক্ত Clause-এর প্রথম অংশ Past perfect tense হলে পরের অংশ Subject-এর পরে Would have/could have/might have বসে এবং Verb-এর Past participle form হয়।
If you had finished it sincerely, you (get) a profit.
Ans : If you had finished it sincerely, you would have got a profit.
If I had possessed vast wealth, I (help) the poor people.
Ans : If I had possessed vast wealth, I would have helped the poor people.
If he had met his teacher, he (solve) the problems.
Ans : If he had met his teacher, he would have solved the problems.

🎯 Rule-40: To-এর পরে Verb-এর present form হয়। যেমন,
She went to New Market to (buy) — a dress.
She went to New Market to buy a dress.
We have come here to (see) — his ailing mother.
We have come here to see his ailing mother.
The man said to the porter to (carry) — the load.
The man said to the porter to carry the load.
Try yourself :
You need to (go) — there.
We have to (realize) — the importance of English.

🎯 Rule-41:To ব্যতীত Preposition-এর পরের Verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যুক্ত হয়।
He is now engaged in (read).
Ans : He is now engaged in reading.
One can gather knowledge by (travel).
Ans : One can gather knowledge by traveling.

🎯 Rule-42: Can not help, could not help, look forward to, with a view to, get used to, mind , would you mind, worth, past ইত্যাদির পরে Verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যুক্ত হয়।
He came to Dhaka with a view to (find) a job.
Ans : He came to Dhaka with a view to finding a job.
I cannot help (laugh).
Ans : I cannot help laughing.
I went there with a view to (read) — there.
I went there with a view to reading there.
I am looking forward to (get) — your reply.
I am looking forward to getting your reply.
I looked forward to (stand) — first in the class.
I looked forward to standing first in the class.
Would you mind (give) — me a pen ?
Would you mind giving me a pen ?
I can not help (do) — the work.
I can not help doing the work.
He could not help (help) — the poor.
He could not help helping the poor.
Try yourself :
They become addicted to (take) — drugs.
We went to Cox’s Bazar with a view to (see) — the sea shore.
She never mind (have) — ice cream.
He could not help (sell) — his land.


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🎯 Rule-43: কোন Sentence-এর শুরুতে Subject-এর স্থানে Verb থাকলে Verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যোগ হয়।
(To swim) is a good exercise.
Ans : Swimming is a good exercise.
(To speak) is an art.
Ans : Speaking is an art.

🎯 Rule-44: By-এর পরে Verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যোগ হয়। যেমন,
He expressed his grief by (say) — that the thief had stolen his watch.
He expressed his grief by saying that the thief had stolen his watch.
Answer the questions by (write) — one point of information.
Answer the questions by writing one point of information.
By (dig) — a deeper hole, Jerry planted a tree.
By digging a deeper hole, Jerry planted a tree.
Try yourself :
No student can pass the examination by (adopt) — unfair means in the examination.
By (be) — conscious of a language one can develop his ‘explicit’ learning.

🎯 Rule-45: lf/Had যুক্ত clauseটি Past Indefinite Tense হলে অপর clause-এর Subject-এর পরে would/could/might বসে এবং Verb-এর Present Form বসে। যেমন,
If he requested me, I (go) __there.
If he requested me, I would go there.
If I were a rich man, I (help)__the poor.
If I were a rich man, I would help the poor.
If I were the President, I (remove)__ the terrorism.
If I were the President, I would remove the terrorism.
Try yourself :
Had I much money, I (establish)__a college.
Had I the wings of a bird, I (fly)__ like a bird.

🎯 Rule-46: Sentence-lf/Had যুক্ত clauseটি Past perfect Tense হলে অন্য অংশটিতে Subject-এর পরে অর্থভেদে would have/could have/might have বসে এবং verb-এর past participle হয়।
If he had invited, I (go)__.
If he had invited, I would have gone.
If I had been a rich man, I (help)__the poor.
If I had been a rich man, I would have helped the poor.
Try yourself :
We would have come, if he (invite)__.
If you had stated earlier, you (catch)__the bus.

🎯 Rule-47: If যুক্ত Clause-এর প্রথমটিতে Subject-এর পর were থাকলে দ্বিতীয় অংশে Subject-এর পরে Would/ could/ might বসে এবং Verb-এর Present From বসে। আবার, Would have/could have/would haveও বসতে পারে। সে ক্ষেত্রে Verb-এর Past participle form বসে।
If I were an artist, I (draw) a nice picture.
Ans : If I were a child, I would draw a nice picture.
If I were a billionaire, I (establish) a hospital for the poor.
Ans : If I were a billionaire, I would establish a hospital for the poor.
Had-এর পরে Subject এবং Verb-এর Past participle থাকলে পরবর্তী Clause-এর Subject-এর পরে Would have/could have/might have + verb-এর Past participle form বসে।
Had I been a teacher, I (talk) the real story to my students.
Ans : Had I been a teacher, I would have talked the real story to my students.

🎯 Rule-48: Verb ‘to be’ বিহীন Sentenceকে Negative বা Interrogative করতে হলে tense Subject-এর number person অনুসারে do, does, did ব্যবহার করতে হবে।
We not (play) Ha-du-du.
Ans : We do not play Ha-du-du.
She not (play) football.
Ans : She does not play football.
He not (come) home yesterday.
Ans : He did not come home yesterday.

🎯 Rule-49: সাধারণত Preposition (on, in of, for, from, by, after at, beyond, upon, against, with, without, before ইত্যাদি) এর পরে verb-এর সঙ্গে ing যোগ হয়। যেমন:
Rina is busy in (do) her home work.
Ans : Rina is busy in doing her homework.
Helen is neglected for (speak) foolishly.
Ans : Helen is neglected for speaking foolishly.
Keep on (try) hard.
Ans : Keep on trying hard.
I don’t believe in (overload) — my stomach.
I don’t believe in overloading my stomach.
I had never thought of (go) — there.
I had never thought of going there.
I could not live without (help) — the poor.
I could not live without helping the poor.
Try yourself :
After (do) — the work I will go out.
The porter came here for (do) — the work.

🎯 Rule-50: Interrogative sentence যদি who, what, why, which, when, where, whose, how ইত্যাদি question word দিয়ে শুরু হয় তাহলে subject-এর আগে tense person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb ব্যবহার করতে হবে।
Why he (look) so happy?
Ans : Why does he look so happy?
When father (come)?
Ans : When will father come?
What you (say)?
Ans : What do you say?

🎯 Rule-51: সাধারণত নিচের verb-গুলোর পরে gerund বসে। যেমন: admit, enjoy, report, appreciate, finish, recent, avoid, mind, resist, miss, resume, consider, postpone, risk, delay, practise, suggest, escape, imagine, save, recall, prevent, propose, stop, deny, quit ইত্যাদি।
We enjoy (watch) TV.
We enjoy watching TV.
I have finished (writing).
I have finished writing.
Students have finished (write) the exam.
Students have finished writing the exam.

🎯 Rule-52: ‘Since’ বা ‘for’-এর পরে সময় উল্লেখ থাকলে sentenceটি present perfect Continuous Tense হবে। যেমন,
It (rain) — for two hours.
It has been raining for two hours.
It (rain) — since the morning.
It has been raining since the morning.
We (live) — in Dhaka since 1986.
We have been living in Dhaka since 1986.
Try yourself :
They (live) — Dhaka for 20 years.
She (wait) — you for two hours.

🎯 Rule-53: Main Clause-এর Verbটি Past Tense-এর হলে এবং পরের অংশে next day, next week, next month, next year ইত্যাদি উল্লেখ থাকলে Subject-এর পরে would/should বসে এবং Verb-এর Present Form হয়।
He said that he (go) — home the next day.
He said that he would go home the next day.
He told that he (come) — here the next year.
He told that he would come here the next year.
He said that he (buy) — a new TV the next day.
He said that he would buy a new TV the next day.
Try yourself :
She said that she (sell) — her land the next month.
The man said that he (go) — to London the next day.

🎯 Rule-54: After-এর পরে এবং before-এর আগের clauseটি past perfect tense হয় এবং অন্য clauseটি past indefinite tense হয়।
The doctor (come) — before the patient came.
The doctor had come before the patient came.
The doctor came after the patient (die)__.
The doctor came after the patient had died.
The train left — they had reached the station.
The train left after they had reached the station.
Try yourself :
The patient had died — the doctor came.
The train (start) — before they reached there.

🎯 Rule-55: Sentenceটি Passive voice হলে Tense Person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary Verb Verb-এর Past participle বসাতে হবে এবং gap-এর পরে Subject থাকলে by বসাতে হবে।
English (speak) — all over the world.
English is spoken all over the world.
English (speak) — the English.
English is spoken by the English.
He has (expell) — from the examination hall.
He has been expelled from the examination hall.
Try yourself :
The boys (send) — to school yesterday.
The bird (kill) — on the ship last week.
Cricket (play) — all over the world.
Practice: Using the right form of the verbs in the following sentences.
(A)
i) He usually (get) up early in the morning.
ii) When father (come)?
iii) Rina is busy in (do) her home work.
iv) We not (play) Ha-du-du.
v) He is now engaged in (read).
(B)
i) If they tried, they (succeed).
ii) If you work hard, you (prosper) in life.
iii) I (receive) the letter just now.
iv) Neela (come) from Dhaka the day after tomorrow.
v) I (get) the parcel last month.
(C)
i) They (work) in the garden at this moment.
ii) Lila not (play) ludu.
iii) The sun (rise) in the east.
iv) He (die) last night.
v) No sooner the thief (see) the police than (run) away.
(D)
i) Had I been a rich man. I (help) the poor.
ii) I can (play) it.
iii) The man is (go) mad.
iv) It (rain) since morning.
v) Walk fast lest you (miss) the train.
(E) give — leave — try — swim — go — draw
i) They arrived the station after the train—.
ii) It is many years since he — up smoking.
iii) If I were an artist, I — a nice picture.
iv) Keep on — hard. v) — is a good exercise.
(F) sit — take — see — go — live
i) Once upon a time there — a king.
ii) — on the chair.
iii) I feel like — a cap of tea now.
iv) Many years have passed since I — him.
v) I cannot but — there.
(G)
i) reach be have live to be go
ii) Bread and butter — my desired food.
iii) Rana runs fast as it he — mad.
iv) We — a nice breakfast yesterday.
v) She will — home by 5 pm.
vi) A day labour works hard for—from hand to mouth.
(H) write — beg — start — call — rain — forget
i) I have — your name.
ii) Do you hear me — you?
iii) I found him —.
iv) I got the letter — by him.
v) It is high time we — for the station.
Answers:
(A) i) gets ii) come iii) doing iv) do not play v) reading
(B) i) succeed ii) will prosper iii) have received iv) will come v) got
(C) i) are working ii) does not play iii) rises iv) died v) had seen, ran
(D) i) would have helped ii) play iii) gone iv) has been raining v) should miss
(E) i) had left ii) gave iii) would drawn iv) trying v) swimming
(F) i) lived ii) Sit iii) taking iv) saw v) go
(G) i) is ii) were iii) had iv) reach v) living
(H) i) forgotten ii) calling iii) begging iv) written v) started



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বিশ্বাস করুন আর নাই করুনঃ-“বিভিন্ন ক্যাটাগরির এই কালেকশ গুলোর মধ্যে দেওয়া বাংলা ও ইংলিশ বই, সফটওয়্যার ও টিউটোরিয়াল এর কালেকশন দেখে আপনি হতবাক হয়ে যাবেন !”
আপনি যদি বর্তমানে কম্পিউটার ব্যবহার করেন ও ভবিষ্যতেও কম্পিউটার সাথে যুক্ত থাকবেন তাহলে এই ডিভিডি গুলো আপনার অবশ্যই আপনার কালেকশনে রাখা দরকার !
মোট কথা আপনাদের কম্পিউটারের বিভিন্ন সমস্যার চিরস্থায়ী সমাধান ও কম্পিউটারের জন্য প্রয়োজনীয় সব বই, সফটওয়্যার ও টিউটোরিয়াল এর সার্বিক সাপোর্ট দিতে আমার খুব কার্যকর একটা উদ্যোগ হচ্ছে এই ডিভিডি প্যাকেজ গুলো।আশা করি এই কালেকশন গুলো শিক্ষার্থীদের সকল জ্ঞানের চাহিদা পূরন করবে…!
আমার আসল উদ্দেশ্য হল, কম্পিউটার ও মোবাইল এইডেড লার্নিং ডিভিডি কার্যক্রম এর মাধ্যমে সফটওয়্যার, টিটোরিয়াল ও এইচডি কালার পিকচার নির্ভর ই-বু বা বইয়ের সহযোগিতায় শিক্ষাগ্রহন প্রক্রিয়াকে খুব সহজ ও আনন্দদায়ক করা।
এবং সকল স্টুডেন্ট ও টিচারকে কম্পিউটার ও মোবাইল প্রযুক্তির সম্পৃক্তকরণ এবং সকল শিক্ষার্থী ও শিক্ষকদের প্রযুক্তিবান্ধব করা এবং একটা বিষয় ক্লিয়ার করে বুঝিয়ে দেওয়া যে প্রযুক্তি শিক্ষাকে আনন্দদায়ক করে এবং জ্ঞান অর্জনের প্রতি আকর্ষণ বৃদ্ধি করে…
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