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📱মোবাইল দিয়ে পড়তে ও ডাউনলোড করতে যাদের সমস্যা হয়ঃ তারা নিচের লিংকে ক্লিক থেকে অ্যাপটা ডাউনলোড করে নেন... মোবাইলে বই পড়ার জন্য এটি একটি অনন্য অ্যাপ , একবার ইন্সটল করে দেখুন আশা এর সব ফিচার দেখে আপনি এই অ্যাপস এর ফ্যান হয়ে যাবেন । 📳মোবাইল স্ক্রিন ভার্সনে অর্থাৎ যে কোন সাইজের স্ক্রিনে অটোমেটিক এডজাস্ট হওয়া। (আপনাকে ডানে-বামে বা উপরে-নিচে মুভ করা লাগবে না) প্রয়োজনীয় সকল শিক্ষণীয় বাংলা বই 📚 ফ্রি তে পড়তে পারবেন , এই বইঘর Boighor এন্ড্রয়েড অ্যাপ খুব শিগ্রই সবার প্রিয় অ্যাপ হবে , কারন এতে আছে 🔖 বুকমার্ক মেনুঃ ক্লিক করে যে কোন অধ্যায়ে সরাসরি যেতে পারবেন, 🌙 নাইট মোড বা ভিউ, 🔍 বইয়ের 📑 মধ্যে যে কোন টেক্সট সার্চ করার সুবিধা, 📝 বইয়ের টেক্সটকে পছন্দমত হাইলাইট বা মার্ক , আন্ডারলাইন ✐ড্র করা যাবে (সো চিন্তা করে দেখুন এর চাইতে সহজ ও ইউজার ফ্রেন্ডলি কোন বাংলা বই পড়ার এন্ড্রয়েড অ্যাপ আছে কিনা!!! ) আর যে কোন লেখক ও পাবলিশারের একমাত্র নির্ভরযোগ্য অ্যাপ হবে , কারন আমাদের চেয়ে বেশি সিকুরিটি আর কেউ দিতে পারবে না ...ইনশাআল্লাহ
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শনিবার, ১ ডিসেম্বর, ২০১২

postheadericon Basic English

Basic English

English is Fun

Prepared by

Tanim Prodhan

BBA & MBA, Northern University Bangladesh

Basic English

Lesson 1: Learning to talk about yourself and others.

I = the word used to talk about myself.   I am Mr. G.  I am a man.  I am fuzzy.  I am smiling.
am = a form of the verb “to be” used only with I.
(Note: In spoken English, “I” and “am” are often joined to form a “contraction” that looks like this in writing – “I’m” – and rhymes with words like “time” and “lime”.)
I am + adjective. An adjective tells who I am, what kind of person I am, what I look like, how I feel.

I am tall. (I’m tall.)
I am awake. (I’m awake.)
I am sleepy. (I’m sleepy.)
I am tired. (I’m tired.)
I am hungry. (I’m hungry.)
I am dirty. (I’m dirty.)
I am pretty. (I’m pretty.)
I am English. (I’m English.)
I am afraid. (I’m afraid.)
I am short. (I’m short.)
I am fat. (I’m fat.)
I am thin. (I’m thin.)
I am happy. (I’m happy.)
I am smart. (I’m smart.)
I am French. (I’m French.)
I am young. (I’m young.)
I am rich. (I’m rich.)
I am sick. (I’m sick.)
I am healthy. (I’m healthy.)
I am single. (I’m single.)
I am quiet. (I’m quiet.)
I am Italian. (I’m Italian.)
I am sad. (I’m sad.)
I am old. (I’m old.)
I am angry. (I’m angry.)
I am poor. (I’m poor.)
I am clean. (I’m clean.)
I am noisy. (I’m noisy.)
I am married. (I’m married.)
I am American. (I’m  American.)
I am unemployed. (I’m unemployed.)
I am confused. (I’m confused.)
I am Iraqi. (I’m Iraqui.)









I am + -ing verb.  This sentence tells what I am doing at this moment.  “I am writing this lesson now.”
I am eating. (I’m eating.)
I am sleeping. (I’m sleeping.)
I am working. (I’m working.)
I am crying. (I’m crying.)
I am walking. (I’m walking.)
I am shopping. (I’m shopping.)
I am driving. (I’m driving.)
I am babysitting. (I’m babysitting.)
I am sitting. (I’m sitting.)
I am writing. (I’m writing.)
I am typing. (I’m typing.)
I am texting. (I’m texting.)
I am singing. (I’m singing.)
I am thinking. (I’m thinking.)
I am working. (I’m working.)
I am + article + noun. Articles are little words that point out Nouns.  They tell us that there will be a Noun ahead in the sentence.   Articles are A, AN, THE.  Nouns are words that name a person, a place, a thing, an idea, a feeling or an action.  Any word we use to name something is a Noun.
THE is used to point out a definite noun, the only one of its kind, a special one.
Example: “I am the driver”  In this group, I am the only one who can drive or who is responsible for driving. 
Example: If I say “I am the doctor.”, I mean that I am the only doctor here on this case or in this situation.
I am the teacher. (I’m the teacher.)
I am the boss. (I’m the boss.)
I am the janitor. (I’m the janitor.)
I am the cook. (I’m the cook.)
I am the driver. (I’m the driver.)
I am the supervisor. (I’m the supervisor.)
I am the mailman. (I’m the mailman.)
I am the doctor. (I’m the doctor.)
I am the president. (I’m the president.)
I am the owner. (I’m the owner.)
A and AN are used with singular nouns.  A and AN mean the same thing, but they are used in different situations.  AN is used before words that begin with a Vowel sound (a, e, i, o, u) .  A is used before words that begin with a consonant sound (all the other letters). This is to make it easier to pronounce the Article and the Noun together.   A and AN refer to one of a group of similar things – not a special one or a particular one, just one of them.  (Special note: Sometimes, AN is used before longer words that begin with H, but I haven’t found a rule that explains this difference.  “It was AN historical event.” It might just be for the ease of pronunciation. Try it – A historical, AN historical ; A hysterical party , AN hysterical party.)
Example: “I am a driver.”  There are other drivers; I am just one of them.
Example:   If I say “I am a doctor.”, I mean that I am not the only doctor;  I am just one of them, a member of the medical profession.
NOT is a negative word.  When added to a sentence, usually after the verb, NOT cancels or negates the original meaning of the sentence.  “I am a doctor.” is a positive statement, usually giving a truthful fact.  “I am not a doctor.” is a negative statement and means that my profession or position is something other than as a physician.
I am a salesman. (I’m a salesman.)
I am a boxer. (I’m a boxer.)
I am a gambler. (I’m a gambler.)
I am a mother. (I’m a mother.)
I am a Muslim. (I’m a Muslim.)
I am an organ-player. (I’m an organ-player.)
I am an undertaker. (I’m an undertaker.)
I am an ice skater. (I’m an ice skater.)
I am an angel. (I’m an angel.)
I am an elephant. (I’m an elephant.)
I am a college student. (I’m a college student.)
I am not an acrobat. (I’m not an acrobat.)
I am not a sophomore. (I’m not a sophomore.)
I am not an angel. (I’m not an angel.)
I am not an elephant. (I’m not an elephant.)
A,  AN and THE must come before the noun they point out, but there can be other describing words between them and the Noun.  Remember, use A before words beginning with a consonant sound (a boy, a dog) and AN before words beginning with a vowel sound (an ugly boy, an old dog).
I am the only doctor. I am the school janitor. I am the main man. I am the boy’s father.
I am a good doctor. I am a careful janitor. I am a tall man. I am a young father.
I am an awful doctor. I am an honest janitor. I am an old man. I am an angry father.
With these models, you can say just about anything you want about yourself.
 I am + Adjective.
I am + Article + Noun.
I am + -ing Verb.
Asking questions about yourself.  The simplest way to make a question that asks about yourself is to reverse the positions of the pronoun I and the verb AM.
I am tall. (statement)
Am I tall? (question)
I am late. (statement)
Am I late? (question)
I am fat. (statement)
Am I fat? (question)
I am clean. (statement)
Am I clean? (question)
I am the boss. (statement)
Am I the boss? (question)
I am your friend. (statement)
Am I your friend? (question)
I am driving. (statement)
Am I driving? (question)
I am a good artist. (statement)
Am I a good artist? (question)
When you see a written question, you know what it is because of the Question Mark (?) at the end and the different positions of the subject (I) and the verb (am).  When you hear a question, you can hear the different word order, but you also will hear the speaker’s voice rising at the end of the last word.
Talking about other people:
YOU = the person or persons you are talking to.  This can refer to one person or to many people. YOU is used with the Present Tense ARE. (you + are = you’re)
HE = The male person you are talking about – HE is used for a boy or man,   HE  is used with the Present Tense verb IS.  (he + is = he’s)
    SHE = The female person you are talking about.  SHE is for a girl or woman.  SHE is used with the Present Tense verb IS.  (she + is = she’s)
    IT = The object, idea or animal you are talking about.  IT is used with the Present Tense verb IS.  (it + is = it’s)
WE = Myself and one or more other people.  WE is used with the Present Tense verb ARE.  (we + are = we’re)
THEY = More than one persons, objects or animals that I am talking about.  THEY is used with the Present Tense verb ARE.  (they + are = they’re)
You are tall. (You’re tall.)
Are you tall?
You are a good doctor.  (You’re a good doctor.)
Are you a good doctor?
He is tall.  (He’s tall.)
Is he tall?
He is a kind father.  (He’s a kind father.)
Is he a kind father?
She is sad.  (She’s sad.)
Is she sad?
She is a good teacher.  (She’s a good teacher.)
Is she a good teacher?
It is dirty.  (It’s dirty.)
Is it dirty?
It is a new car.  (It’s a new car.)
Is it a new car?
We are sick.  (We’re sick.)
Are we sick?
We are careful drivers.  (We’re careful drivers.)
Are we careful drivers?
You (all) are late.  (You’re late.)
Are you (all) late?
You are smart students.  (You’re smart students.)
Are you smart students?
They are happy.  (They’re happy.)
Are they happy?
They are old men.  (They’re old men.)
Are they old men?
Exercise A: Use words from the box below to complete the following sentences.
good, carpenter, happy, mechanic, dirty, eating, singer, driver, single, married, horse, pizza, diving,  funny, doctor, unemployed, tall, old, sick, honest, teacher, woman, battleship, choking, proud, cook, running, decent

1. I am ____________________________.    
4. I am _____________________________.2. I am ____________________________.5. I am _____________________________.3. I am ____________________________.6. I am _____________________________.
Exercise B: Use words from the box above to complete the following sentences.
1. I am a ____________________________. 5. I am an _________________________________.
2. I am the _____________________________. 6. I am the _________________________________.
3. I am a ______________________________. 7. I am a ___________________________________.
4. I am an ______________________________. 8. I am the _________________________________.
Exercise C:  Change the following statements to questions.  Change the following questions to statements.
1. I am silly. 1. 5. Am I early? 5.
2. I am a good teacher. 2. 6. I am driving slowly. 6.
3. I am running fast. 3. 7. Am I the only man? 7.
4. Am I a good student? 4. 8. I am the first girl. 8.
Exercise D: Add the missing subject or the missing verb in the following sentences.
1.  You ________ a cowboy. 6.  ______ are honest workers. 11.  It _______ an old dog.
2.  ________ is a tall man. 7.  ______ is a pretty girl. 12.  They ______ happy children.
3.  Are ______ an honest person? 8.  He ______ a nice doctor. 13.  ______ we smart students?
4.  We _____ very tired. 9.  ______ we late for class? 14.  _____ you my new friend?
5.  Is ______ a good bicycle? 10.  Are ______ the new teachers? 15.  _____ is the last bus.
Answers to Lesson 1 Exercises: 
Exercise A:  Any of the following would be correct.
1. I am good.  I am diving.  I am honest. 4. I am eating.  I am tall.  I am running.
2. I am happy.  I am funny.  I am choking. 5. I am single.  I am old.  I am decent.
3. I am dirty.  I am unemployed.  I am proud. 6. I am married.  I am sick.
Exercise B: Your answers may vary.  These are some possibilities.
1. I am a mechanic. 5. I am an old woman.
2. I am the carpenter. 6. I am the doctor.
3. I am a singer. 7. I am a driver.
4. I am an unemployed teacher. 8. I am the cook.
Exercise C:
1. Am I silly? 5. I am early.
2. Am I a good teacher? 6. Am I driving slowly?
3. Am I running fast? 7. I am the only man.
4. I am a good student. 8. Am I the first girl?
Exercise D:
1. are 6. We, You, They 11. is
2.  He 7.  She 12.  are
3.  you 8.  is 13.  Are
4. are 9.  Are 14.  Are
5.  it 10.  They, You 15.  It

             Lesson 2:  Basic Survival Sentences

I want __ (something) .  
I want a pizza. I want a job. I want an aspirin. I want a new car.
I want a drink. I want an orange. I want some change. I want a room.
I want the newspaper. I want some water. I want some gas. I want the telephone.
Notice the Articles – A, AN, THE – and the adjective SOME.  They all point out nouns. 
  • A is used before words that begin with a consonant sound.  It refers to any one of a group of things.  “A pizza” means one of the pizzas in the shop: not a particular one.
  • AN is used before words that begin with a vowel sound.  It also refers to any one of a group of things.  “An aspirin” means one of the aspirins in the bottle or medicine cabinet, but no special one.
  • THE refers to a particular something: “I want the newspaper.”  usually means today’s newspaper or the most recent one. It could also mean the only newspaper in the room or the one on the table.
  • SOME  means an indefinite amount of the noun it refers to.  “some water” could mean a glass of water, half a glass of water, or a bucket of water.  The exact meaning would be different in different situations.
I need _ (something) .
I need a drink.
I need a job.
I need a new car.
I need a hug.
I need an aspirin.
I need an umbrella.
I need an overcoat.
I need an envelope.
I need some gas.
I need some change.
I need some milk.
I need some help.
I need the screwdriver.
I need the phone book.
I need the newspaper.
I need the answer.
I have   (something) . 
I have a headache.
I have a toothache.
I have a stomach ache.
I have the newspaper.
I have the time.
I have two sisters.
I have an apartment.
I have a good job.
I have an idea.
I have an apple.
I have some coffee.
I have some friends.
In the place of the articles (A, AN, THE), you can often use numbers or amount words:  “I have a lot of time.”  “I have little time.” “I have a cup of coffee.”  “I have two friends.”  “I need 5 gallons of gas.”  “I need three envelopes.” “I want two aspirins.”
I want to   (+ verb) .  This form talks about an action I wish to take but is not necessary.
I want to go home.
I want to stay home.
I want to work.
I want to sleep.
I want to drive.
I want to write a letter.
I want to change shoes.
I want to help.
I need to   (+ verb)  .  This form is used for an action that is necessary or important to take.
I need to sleep.
I need to exercise.
I need to wake up.
I need to buy milk.
I need to go shopping.
I need to study.
I need to pay bills.
I need to drive slowly.
I have to   (+ verb) + .  This form is to talk about an action I am obligated to do – very important.
I have to rest.
I have to work.
I have to eat.
I have to visit Mother.
I have to take a test.
I have to pay my rent.
I have to fix my car.
I have to finish this job.
When other people WANT, HAVE or NEED something.
  • you want, you need, you have (YOU can mean one person you are talking to or several people: “Mary, will you come here?” or “Class, you need to open the new books carefully.”
  • he wants, he needs, he has
  • she wants, she needs, she has
  • it wants, it needs, it has
  • we want, we need, we have
  • they want, they need, they have
Forming questions with Survival Sentences.
To make a question out of a WANT, HAVE or NEED sentence, put a form of TO DO at the beginning of the sentence, then place a question mark ( ? ) at the end.
  • Do I want  …..?  Do I need ……?  Do I have …… ?
  • Do you want ……?  Do you need …….?  Do you have ….. ?
  • Does he want …… ? Does he need …….?  Does he have ….. ?
  • Does she want ….. ?  Does she need ……?  Does she have ……?
  • Does it want ….. ?  Does it need ……?  Does it have ……?
  • Do we want …… ?  Do we need …… ? Do we have …….?
  • Do they want ….. ?  Do they need …….?  Do they have ……. ?
(Note: English sentences only need one verb to agree with the subject or show the tense.  When DO is added to a statement to form a question, it takes over the job of agreeing with the subject or showing the tense.  Thus, “He wants …”  with the S ending for a Third Person Singular subject, becomes “Does he want …?”  using the Third Person Singular form of DO and returning “wants” back to the basic form, “want”.  In the sentence “She has …”, the Third Person Singular form of “HAVE” is used, but when this is turned into a question, DO becomes “Does” and “has” changes back to “have”:  “She has a dress.  Does she have a dress?”)
You want a new coat.
Do you want a new coat?
She wants my house.
Does she want my house?
You need a haircut.
Do you need a haircut?
She needs some lipstick.
Does she need some lipstick?
You have a cold.
Do you have a cold?
She has an umbrella.
Does she have an umbrella?
He wants a glass of milk.
Does he want a glass of milk?
We want to swim.
Do we want to swim?
He needs a better bicycle.
Does he need a better bicycle?
We need some water.
Do we need some water?
He has a pet rabbit.
Does he have a pet rabbit?
We have six goats.
Do we have six goats?
They want hamburgers.
Do they want hamburgers?
They need to rest.
Do they have to sleep?
Exercise A:  Complete the following sentences with I want,  I need, or I have. 
1. ____________ some cherry pie. 4. _____________ a lawyer. 7. ____________ an ice cream cone.
2. _____________ new tires for my car. 5. _____________ film for my camera. 8. ____________ a wife and two kids.
3. ____________ some cold medicine. 6. ____________ too many bills. 9. ____________ a vacation.
Exercise B: Complete the following sentences with I want, I have, I need.
1. ___________ to go swimming. 4. ___________ to polish my shoes. 7. ___________ to mow the grass.
2. ___________ to buy groceries. 5. ___________ to watch a movie. 8. ___________ to play basketball.
3. ___________ to attend school. 6. ___________ to pay my taxes. 9. ___________ to learn English.
 Exercise C: Put the correct words in the spaces in the following sentences to form complete sentences or questions.
1. ______ she have a new dress? 6. Do _______ have my wallet? 11. You ________ to arrive early.
2. You _______ to call home. 7. ______ each have apartments. 12. ______you need a license?
3. We _______ to go to the movies. 8. _______ the dog have a leash? 13. _______ have six cats.
4. Do they ________ enough money? 9. He ________ ten dollars more. 14. Do ______ need more pencils?
5. He _______ two brothers. 10. Does he _______ more money? 15. He _______ a new bike.
 Answers to Lesson 2 Exercises:
 Exercise A: These are the best answers, but other choices may be correct.
1. I want (have) some cherry pie. 4. I need (want) (have) a lawyer. 7. I want an ice cream cone.
2. I need (have) (want) some new tires for my car. 5. I need (want) (have) film for my camera. 8. I have (want) a wife and two kids.
3. I need (have) (want) some cold medicine. 6. I have too many bills. 9. I need (want) a vacation.
Exercise B: The best answers are first.  Other answers may be OK.
1. I want to go swimming. 4. I have (want) (need) to polish my shoes. 7. I have (need) (want)  to mow the grass.
2. I need (have) (want) to buy groceries. 5. I want to watch a movie. 8. I want to play basketball.
3. I have (want) to attend school. 6. I have to pay my taxes. 9. I need (want) to learn English.
Exercise C:  The best answers are first.  Other answers might be okay.
1. Does
4. have
7. We (They)
10. need (have, want)
13. we (they, you)
2. have (need)
5. has (wants, needs)
8. Does
11. need (have)
14. we (you, they)
3. want (have, need)
6. you
9. needs (wants, has)
12. Do
15. has (wants, needs)

Lesson 3: Grammar Terms and Sentence Parts

What is GRAMMAR?  Grammar is the set of rules for using a language.
What is a SENTENCE?  A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought or idea.  A sentence always begins with a CAPITAL letter and ends with a Period ( . ), a Question mark ( ? ) or an Exclamation point ( ! ).
SENTENCE PARTS
Every sentence has two main parts: a SUBJECT, and a PREDICATE.
SUBJECTS
PREDICATES
I
He
fell.
is lazy.
The boy
Those dogs
kicked the ball.
chased the mailman away.
All the women
Six white horses and four black ones
went to the store and bought new gloves.
pulled the carts into town and around the square.
By looking at the examples above, can you tell what a Subject and a Predicate are?
Subject:  Who or what a sentence is about; who or what does something in a sentence; any words that tell about  or describe the main subject.
Predicate:  What happens in a sentence; who or what it happens to; words that tell when, where, why or how the action happens; words that describe who or what  the action happens to.
NOTE: There are words called Linking Verbs that are always part of the Predicate but  do not show any action.  The most common ones are AM, IS, ARE, WAS, WERE, BE, BEING, BEEN.  They tell about the existence of something or someone, not what  someone or  something does.  They are called Linking Verbs because they link the subject to a word or words in the predicate that mean the same as the subject or that describe the subject.
What are Subjects made of?
ARTICLES
ADJECTIVES
NOUNS
PRONOUNS
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
a, an
large, small, tiny
man, boy, woman
I, you, we
of the family
the
green, yellow, blue
horse, dog, cat
he, she, it
in the choir

old, young, ancient
building, tree, road
they
with a long beard

this, that, these, those
truck, car, bicycle
who, which, what
from the office staff

one, five, twenty
happiness, sadness
this, that, these, those
on the corner

naked, wealthy, tired
freedom, slavery
one, anyone, nobody
without a spare tire
 Articles:  Point out nouns; signal that a noun is close ahead in a sentence.  Nouns can be used without an article, but articles can never be used without a noun.
Adjectives: Describe nouns.  They tell what kind, which one, how many, what size, what color a noun is.
Nouns:  Any word that names something is a noun.  The name of a person, a place, a thing, an idea, an emotion, or an activity is a noun.  If it is a particular person, place or thing (George, New York, Cadillac), it is a Proper Noun and must be written with a capital letter.  If it is a general name (man, city, automobile), it is a common noun with no capital letter.
Pronouns:  Pronouns take the place of nouns when we write or speak. (Tom did not come to work today.  He was sick.)
Prepositional Phrases:  These small groups of words tell us which one or what kind the sentence is referring to.  (The building on the corner is tall.  Which building?  Not the one across the street or the one in the middle of the block, but the one “on the corner”.)
Not all of these parts need to be in a subject, but all of them may be.  This is how, using parts from the box above… (predicates will be in parentheses ).
He (was sick.)
The man (was sick.)
The wealthy old man (was sick.)
That ancient yellow truck without a spare tire (drove down the street.)
The great sadness of the large family in the choir (depressed me.)
What are Predicates made of?
VERBS
ADVERBS
ARTICLES
ADJECTIVES
NOUNS
PRONOUNS
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
am, is, are
very, hardly
a
this, that
girl, boy, dog
me, you
in the back seat
was, were
quickly, slowly
an
these, those
river, car, fog
him, her
under the pine tree
go, went, come
now, then, here, there
the
one, five, many, few, several
concert, movie, play
us, them
between the pages, on the roof
run, jump, hide
where, everywhere

big, little, old, young, pretty
running, singing, day
anyone, someone
after the party, before dinner
like, have, take
when, until

blue, red, dirty, clean, disgusting
pity, cheer, deer
nobody, everybody
during the class, with difficulty
Verbs:  Words that describe or name an action; words that describe a state of being or existence.  Every predicate must have a verb.  Verbs also tell us when something happens or exists – in the past, the present or the future.
Adverbs:  Adverbs modify (add to the meaning of) verbs.  They describe when, where, why or how something happens.  Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs.
Pronouns:  Different  pronouns are used in the predicate than are used in the subject. Subject Pronouns do it and  Predicate Pronouns  receive it.  (They gave the balls to them.  He showed the book to him.)
Examples of Predicates.  (Subjects are in parentheses ).
(I) am sad.
(He) walked.
(He) slowly walked home.
(She) threw the ball.
(She) quickly threw the ball to her teammate.
Before halftime, (she) quickly threw the ball to her teammate.
Exercise A:  Draw a circle around the subjects and underline the predicates in the sentences below.
1. Yesterday, Harvey and Harriet took their children to the zoo.
2. The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals were hungry.
3. The president of the bank looked everywhere for the combination to the vault.
4. They sat quietly.
5. The red race car with yellow stripes finished last in the race.
6. After his speech, the mayor shook hands with members of the crowd.
Exercise B:  Match a subject with a predicate from the boxes below and write the complete sentences on the lines.
Subjects
Predicates
  • (The dirty yellow cat)
  • ( We )
  • (Tom and his brother)
  • (The taxi driver)
  • (Anna’s elderly mother)
  • (The green tree snake)
  • (The detective in the gray raincoat)
  • (Seven rats)
  • (stood outside the hotel all night.)
  • (prowled through the dark alley.)
  • (lived in the attic last winter.)
  • (baked delicious apple pies.)
  • (were late yesterday.)
  • (sold used cars.)
  • (was from the Middle East.)
  • (waited patiently for his victim.)
1. ________________________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________________________
6. ________________________________________________________________________________
7. ________________________________________________________________________________
8. ________________________________________________________________________________

Answers to Exercises, Lesson 3:
Exercise A:
1. Yesterday, (Harvey and Harriet) took their children to the zoo.
2. (The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals) were hungry.
3. (The president of the bank)  looked everywhere for the combination to the vault.
4. (They) sat quietly.
5. (The red race car with yellow stripes) finished last in the race.
6. After his speech, (the mayor) shook hands with members of the crowd.
Exercise B: Answers will vary.  Here are some possibilities.
1. The dirty yellow cat prowled through the dark alley. (waited patiently for his victim.  lived in the attic last winter.  stood outside the hotel all night.  was from the Middle East.)
2. We were late yesterday.  (stood outside the hotel all night.  prowled through the dark alley.  baked delicious apple pies.  sold used cars.  lived in the attic last winter.)
3. Tom and his brother sold used cars.  (stood outside the hotel all night.  prowled through the dark alley.  lived in the attic last winter.)
4. The taxi driver was from the Middle East.  (stood outside the hotel all night.  prowled through the dark alley.  lived in the attic last winter.  baked delicious apple pies.  sold used cars.  waited patiently for his victim.)
5. Anna’s elderly mother baked delicious apple pies.  (stood outside the hotel all night.  prowled through the dark alley.  lived in the attic last winter.  sold used cars.  was from the Middle East.)
6. The green tree snake waited patiently for his victim.  (prowled through the dark alley.  lived in the attic last winter.  was from the Middle East.)
7. The detective in the gray raincoat stood outside the hotel all night.  (prowled through the dark alley.  lived in the attic last winter.  baked delicious apple pies.  sold used cars.  waited patiently for his victim.)
8. Seven rats lived in the attic last winter.  (prowled through the dark alley.)
Lesson 4: Asking questions.
 There are four main ways in English to form a question.     
  • By making your voice rise at the end of a sentence.
  • By beginning the sentence with a question word.
  • By beginning the sentence with a form of DO.
  • By placing the Linking Verb or Auxiliary Verb at the beginning of the sentence.
Rising voice method:  Any group of words you speak in English will sound like a question if you make the pitch of your voice rise at the end of the last word or on the last word.  Pitch means the musical quality of your voice, not the loudness.
This
is
your





dog
(question)



  dog
(statement)
This
is
your






















The
man
is





sick
(question)



sick
(statement)
The
man
is


Since we cannot hear the rise or fall of a voice when we read written words, we have to rely on written symbols to tells us what the words mean.  These symbols, called PUNCTUATION, are  traffic signs for written language.  The example sentences above would be written like this:
  • This is your dog. (statement)   This is your dog?  (question)
  • The man is sick.  (statement)  The man is sick?   (question)
A period ( . ) at the end of a sentence tells us that the thought is finished and that the pitch of our voice  should fall on the last word if we read that sentence aloud.  This type of sentence is called a Statement or a Declarative Sentence and is used to give information.
A question mark ( ? ) at the end of a sentence tells us that the thought is finished and that the pitch of our voice should rise on the last word if we read the sentence aloud.  This type of sentence is called a Question or an Interrogative Sentence  and is used to seek or request information.
Usually, when you  raise the pitch of your voice on the last word to ask a question, you also  reverse the first two words of the sentence,  placing the linking verb (am, is, are, was, were) at the beginning.
  • You are tired.  (statement)    Are you tired?  (question)
  • There is too much salt in the potatoes.  (statement)  Is there too much salt in the potatoes?  (question)
  • I am the last one in line.  (statement)   Am I the last one in line?  (question)
If the verb in the sentence is an action verb, you form a question by placing a form of the verb DO at the beginning of the sentence – DO, DOES or DID and raise the pitch of your voice on the last word.
1. You have a nice car.  (statement) 1. Do you have a nice car?  (question)
2. Mary takes a nap every day.  (statement) 2. Does Mary take a nap every day?  (question)
3. Tom rode his bicycle to school.  (statement) 3. Did Tom ride his bike to school?  (question)
NOTE:  When you add DO to a sentence to form a question, it takes over the jobs of agreeing with the subject and of telling us when the action takes place.
  • The verb have   in sentence 1 is in the Present Tense; therefore, the verb DO in question 1 is also in the Present Tense.
  • The verb takes  ends with an S to go along with the subject Mary  (I take, you take, he takes, she takes, etc.); therefore, you must use Third Person Singular (the S form) of DO, which is DOES, in the question.  Take goes back to the simple present form.
  • The verb rode  in sentence 3 is in the Past Tense; therefore, you must use DID (the Past Tense of DO) in the question. The original verb, rode, changes back to the simple present form, ride.  English only needs one verb in a sentence to show the tense and to agree with the subject.
More examples:
1. Henry paints the house carefully.  (statement) 1. Does Henry paint the house carefully?  (question)
2. They went to the theater last night.  (statement) 2. Did they go to the theater last night?  (question)
3. I play the piano well.  (statement) 3. Do I play the piano well?  (question)
4. Everyone enjoyed the concert.  (statement) 4. Did everyone enjoy the concert?  (question)
  • paints = Third Person Singular in the statement.   Does = Third Person Singular in the question.  paints becomes paint.
  • went = Past Tense in the statement.  Did = Past Tense in the question.  went changes to go.
  • play = Simple Present Tense in the statement.  Do = Simple Present Tense in the question.  play does not change.
  • enjoyed = Past Tense in the statement.  Did = Past Tense in the question.  enjoyed changes to enjoy.
 Reversing Auxiliary Verbs to Form a Question:
When a statement contains a two-part verb ( have gone, will sing, can ride, had thought), the first part is an auxiliary verb or helping verb.  To form a question with a two-part verb, the auxiliary verb is placed at the beginning of the sentence.  The pitch of your voice also rises on the last word.
1. Laura has gone to the store.  (statement) 1. Has Laura gone to the store?  (question)
2. The old garbage truck had crashed into the wall. 2. Had the old garbage truck crashed into the wall?
3. The ball in Times Square will fall at midnight. 3. Will the ball in Times Square fall at midnight?
4. Gene can play the guitar.  (statement) 4. Can Gene play the guitar?  (question)
Making Questions with Question Words:
When you begin a sentence with WHERE, WHEN, WHY, WHAT, HOW, WHO or WHICH,  it almost always signals that a question is coming.  It is not always necessary to raise the pitch of your voice on the last word if the question begins with one of those QUESTION WORDS, because they alone tell the listener to expect a question.
NOTE: An exception is when the words WHAT or HOW introduce an exclamation.  “What a beautiful day it is!”  “How terrible the storm was!”  The double clues – the pitch of the speaker’s voice falling on the last words and the verbs coming at the end of the sentences – tell us that these are not questions in spite of their beginning with WHAT or HOW.
1. What time is it?  [voice can rise (^) or fall (v) at the end] 5. How much is that doggie in the window?  ^or  v
2. Where are you going?  ^or v 6. What kind of fool do you think I am?  ^or  v
3. Why are the police coming?  ^or  v 7. Which dogs were chasing the car?  ^or  v
4. How did the accident happen?  ^or  v 8. Who broke the window?  ^or  v
Exercise A:  Put the correct punctuation marks at the end of the following sentences. 
1. The little boy ran to school 6. Will you have your homework done on time
2. When does the movie start 7. Pete can help you with it
3. There are twelve cups of sugar in the fudge 8. Does Pete understand the lesson
4. How much sugar is there in the fudge 9. Where did you put your school books
5. Are there really twelve cups of sugar in it 10. What a horrible lesson that was
Exercise B: Change the following statements to questions using any of the methods explained in the lesson.
Statements
Questions
1. John was president of his class. 1.
2. The brown pony trotted along the path. 2.
3. All the books are on the top shelf. 3.
4. Michael can climb the wobbly ladder. 4.
5. The clerk tried to reach the books. 5.
6. Ruth decided she wanted those red flowers. 6.
Exercise C:  Make up questions that would get you the information found in the following statements.  Examples:  The red flowers were in a vase.  =  “What color were the flowers in the vase?”  “Where were the red flowers?”  “What was in the vase?”
1. The play starts at eight o’clock. 1.
2. Jack took his sons to the ball game. 2.
3. Martha likes the red convertible, not the blue one. 3.
4. Most students enter the school by the main doors. 4.
5. The carpenter needed twenty nails to finish the job. 5.



Answers to Basic English Lesson 4:
Exercise A: Put the correct punctuation marks at the end of the following sentences.
1. The little boy ran to school. 6. Will you have your homework done on time?
2. When does the movie start? 7. Pete can help you with it.
3. There are twelve cups of sugar in the fudge. 8. Does Pete understand the lesson?
4. How much sugar is there in the fudge? 9. Where did you put your school books?
5. Are there actually twelve cups of sugar in it? 10. What a horrible lesson that was!
Exercise B: Change the following statements to questions using any of the methods explained in  Lesson 4.
1. John was president of his class. 1. Was John president of his class?
2. The brown pony trotted along the path. 2. Did the brown pony trot along the path?
3. All the books are on the top shelf. 3. Are all the books on the top shelf?
4. Michael can climb the wobbly ladder. 4. Can Michael climb the wobbly ladder?
5. The clerk tried to reach the books. 5. Did the clerk try to reach the books?
6. Ruth decided she wanted those red flowers. 6. Did Ruth decide she wanted those red flowers?
Exercise C: Make up questions that would get you the information found in the following statements.  Your answers may vary.  Here are some good possibilities.
1. The play starts at eight o’clock. 1. What time does the play start?  When does the play start?  What starts at eight o’clock?
2. Jack took his sons to the ball game. 2. Who did Jack take to the ball game?  Who took Jack’s sons to the ball game?  Where did Jack take his sons?
3. Martha likes the red convertible, not the blue one. 3. Which convertible does Martha like?  Who likes the red convertible?  How many convertibles are there?
4. Most students enter the school by the main doors. 4. Who enters the school by the main doors?  How do most students enter the school?  What do most students enter by the main doors?
5. The carpenter needed twenty nails to finish the job. 5. Who needed twenty nails to finish the job? How many nails did the carpenter need to finish the job?  What did the carpenter need to finish the job?  Why did the carpenter need twenty nails?

Lesson 5, Using Personal Pronouns

The term PERSON in English means who a sentence is about or who is doing something in a sentence.  Most of the time, we know this by which pronoun is used or could be used.  FIRST PERSON is always yourself; SECOND PERSON is the one or ones you are speaking to; THIRD PERSON is who we are speaking about. ” I (first person) asked you (second person) to invite them (third person) to the party.”
PRONOUNS:
PERSON
1st Singular
2nd Singular
3rd Singular
1st Plural
2nd Plural
3rd Plural
SUBJECT
I
you
he, she, it
we
you
they
OBJECT
me
you
him, her, it
us
you
them
A PRONOUN is a word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence when the noun has already been used earlier,  when the speakers know who is being spoken about, or when people are speaking directly to each other.  The following sentences will use Subject Pronouns, which are used as the subjects of sentences.
First sentence, using a noun. Second sentence – using a pronoun.
which noun = which pronoun
My name is Mr. Smith. I am your new teacher.
Mr. Smith = I
Stand up, John. Will you please read the first line.
John = you
Mr. Smith is the new teacher. He teaches math.
Mr. Smith = He
Mrs. Roberts teaches Social Studies. She will also teach music.
Mrs. Roberts = she
Frank swung the bat very hard. It broke when he hit a home run.
bat = it,  Frank  = he
My brother and I played golf all day. We did not keep score.
brother and I = we.
OK, Class.  Sit down now. Did you finish the homework?
class = you
Ten girls wore new dresses. They looked very nice.
girls = they
The next group of sentences will demonstrate Object Pronouns which act as direct objects (receive the action), indirect objects (receive something), or as objects of a preposition ( to, of, from, by, with, after, etc.).
First sentence, using a noun.
Second sentence, using a pronoun.
which noun = which pronoun
A mother says to a small child “Come to Mommy.” Then she says, “Give me a big hug.”
Mommy = me
“Mary, here are the test grades.” “I gave you a C on the test.”
Mary = you
Martha sent Uncle Jim a letter. Martha sent him photos, also.
Uncle Jim = him
Uncle Jim sent Martha a letter, too. Uncle Jim returned the photos to her.
Martha = her
Pete dug a deep hole in the yard. Pete filled it with water.
hole = it
There were free tickets for Larry, Moe and me. The coach sent the tickets to us.
Larry, Moe and me = us
The boss said, “I need extra help this weekend, Mike and Joe.” “I will pay you overtime for it.”
Mike and Joe = you
The coach gave new uniforms to the players. He gave new hats to them, also.
players = them
Notice that YOU and IT are the same in the Subject and the Object forms.
There are special forms of these pronouns to show ownership.  They are called Possessive Pronouns.  The form used with a noun is sometimes called a Possessive Adjective because it modifies, or gives information about, the noun: my, your, our, his, her, their.
PERSON
1st Singular
2nd Singular
3rd Singular
1st Plural
2nd Plural
3rd Plural
SUBJECT
I
you
he, she, it
we
you
they
OBJECT
me
you
him, her, it
us
you
them
POSSESSIVE
my, mine
your, yours
his, her, hers, its
our, ours
your, yours
their, theirs
  • That book belongs to me.  The book is mine.  It is my book.
  • Does that book belong to you?  Is that book yours?  Is it your book?
  • That book belongs to him.  Is that book his?  Is it his book?
  • That old car belongs to Mrs. Potter.   Is that old car hers.  Is it her car?
  • Those fleas belong to the neighbor’s dog.  Those fleas are its.  They are its fleas.
  • The apartment belongs to Pamela and me.  The apartment  is ours.  It is our apartment.
  • Do these backpacks belong to all of the class?  Are those backpacks yours?  Are they your backpacks?
  • Does that tent belong to the Boy Scouts?  Is that tent theirs?  Is that their tent?
Note:  Possessive Pronouns come in two different forms: one form must be used with the noun it possesses – MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, ITS, OUR, THEIR.  The other form takes the place of the noun and can stand on its own: MINE, YOURS, HIS, HERS, ITS, OURS, THEIRS.  Two of these are the same in both cases – HIS and ITS.
The topic of Pronouns is much larger and more complicated than we have demonstrated here.  There are Compound Personal Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns, Indefinite Pronouns, Demonstrative Pronouns and Relative Pronouns, but they will be covered in other lessons.
Exercise A:  Circle the pronouns in the following sentences.
1. Fred let his brother use a bicycle that was mine. 5. We have to leave, so give our seats to them.
2. Did you remember to bring that new pencil of yours? 6. I hate to be the one to tell you, but he is married.
3. With a brain like mine and talent like yours, we would starve. 7. A sister of theirs wanted to go on the hike with us.
4. She told us that we were late for the party. 8. I said that she told him to leave us alone.
Exercise B: Circle the correct pronouns in the following sentences.
1. (I, Me, My) wish (we, us, our) did not have to use (we, us, our) car for the trip to (you, your, yours) reunion.
2. Miss Williams gave (we, us, our) (we, us, our) test grades Friday before (we, us, our) left school.
3. All the secretaries brought (they, them, their) lunches in paper bags and ate (they, them, their) at (they, them, their) desks.
4. (I, Me, My) dog is a better hunter than (you, your) dog, isn’t (he, she, it).
5. Thomas brought (he, him, his) brother with (he, him, his) to the school picnic.
6. Jane brought (she, her) sister with (she, her), also.
7. (I, Me, My) thanked (them, they, their) for (they, them, their) wonderful care of (I, me, my) while (I, me, my) was in the hospital.
8. The dog chased (it, its) tail but never caught (it, its).
9. (They, Them, Their) car nearly ran into (we, us, our), but (we, us, our) never called the police.
10. Should (we, us, our) do (we, us, our) homework at (my, mine, me) house or at (you, your, yours) ?
Answers to Exercises, Lesson 5
Exercise A:
1. his, mine 3. mine, yours, we 5. We,  our, them 7. theirs, us
2. you, yours 4. She, us, we, 6. I, you, he 8. I, she, him, us
Exercise B:  correct answers given
1. I wish we did not have to use our car for the trip to your reunion.
2. Miss Williams gave us our test grades Friday before we left school.
3. All the secretaries brought their lunches in paper bags and ate them at their desks.
4. My dog is a better hunter than yours, isn’t it.
5. Thomas brought his brother with him to the school picnic.
6. Jane brought her sister with her, also.
7. I thanked them for their wonderful care of me while I was in the hospital.
8. The dog chased its tail but never caught it.
9. Their car nearly ran into us, but we never called the police.
10. Should we do our homework at my house or at yours?

Lesson 6: The different forms of verbs

Most languages use different forms – that is, different spellings or special endings -with their verbs to tell us whether the action took place in the past, is happening right now, is going to take place sometime in the future, happens often, or might not happen at all.  This is true of English.  Also, like other European languages with which we are familiar, many of the most commonly used verbs have the most irregular forms.
This Basic English lesson will explain to you what the verb forms are and when you need to use them.
Regular Verbs:
The infinitive form is made by adding the word “to” to the  Present Tense.  This is the base from which all the other forms are built.  It does not show any particular time for the action.  (Examples: to park, to watch, to call)
The Present Tense is used to talk about something that is taking place now or that takes place on a regular basis.
 Examples:
“They park their car on the street.” “Tom watches the football game on television.” “We call my mother twice a week.”
In the first two sentences, the action might have taken place just one time or many times – the sentences do not make it clear to us.  Note the difference when we add more words:  “They park their car on the street  when the parking lot is full.”  This may have happened once before or many times, but the sentence makes it clear that whenever the parking lot is full, THEY will park on the street.   “Tom watches the football game on television every Sunday.”  It is a regular thing for Tom to watch football on Sundays.  He started doing it on past Sundays and will continue doing it on future Sundays.
Present Tense 3rd Person Singular – the form used with HE, SHE, or IT – ends with an ‘ S ‘.  Third person means the people or things that you and I are talking about.  “Mary walks her dog each morning.”  “She walks her dog each night, also.”  HE sings; IT breaks; the President speaks; the car stops; Mrs. Smith bakes; Gina carries.
The Past Tense  is used to talk about an action that happened before now, sometime in the past.  The action is finished, completed.  It might have taken place two minutes ago, last week, or a thousand years ago.  The Regular Past Tense is formed by adding -ED to the infinitive form, or by just adding -D if the verb ends with an E (bake + ed = baked). Irregular Past Tense forms are … well … Irregular
Examples: 
“They parked their car on the street this time.”  The action is over…..the car is now located on the street.
“Tom watched the football game on television last Sunday.”  The action is over.  The watching started last Sunday and ended last Sunday.
“We called my mother twice a week.”  This tells us that the twice-a-week calls started sometime in the past and ended in the past.  We no longer call my mother twice a week.  Maybe we call her three times a week now, or maybe we don’t call at all.  If we said, “We called my mother twice a week while she was sick.”  this would make it easier to understand that the two calls a week were for a special purpose – to check up on her while she was sick, and since she is well now, we no longer need to call so often.
The Present Participle of a verb is made by adding -ING to the infinitive form.  When used with  AM, IS, or  ARE, it  forms the Present Progressive Tense and talks about an action or state that is going on RIGHT NOW!  It started sometime in the past and is still going on.  The Present Participle used with WAS or WERE forms the Past Progressive Tense and is used for actions that began in the past, went on for a period of time, then ended in the past.
Examples:
“I am writing this lesson.”  The action is taking place right now and is not finished yet. “I was writing this lesson.”  I began writing sometime in the past, but then I either finished it or got tired of writing, so I stopped working on it.  The writing started, went on for a while, then ended – all in the past.
“They are parking their car in our driveway.”  It is happening right now. “They were parking their car in our driveway.”  This began in the past and maybe happened several times, but then for some reason, they stopped parking their car there.  Could it be because we called the police?
“He is waiting for a bus.”  The bus has not arrived yet, so he is STILL waiting. “He was waiting for the bus.”  He started waiting a while ago, but he is not waiting now.  Maybe the bus came, or maybe he got tired of waiting.
The Past Participle  of a verb must also be used with a helping verb.  The Past Participle with HAVE or HAS forms the Present Perfect Tense.  The Past Participle used with HAD forms the Past Perfect Tense.  It will be the helping verb which tells us when the action takes or took place.
Examples: 
“They have parked their car on the street.”  This usually refers to a single action that took place in the past, with the idea that the car is still there.  “They have parked their car on the street ten times.”  It still refers to an action that took place in the past, but might happen again.
“He has waited for the bus for an hour.”  He began waiting in the past and is still waiting.
“We had called my mother several times.”  The calling started in the past, ended in the past, and is over now.
The Future Tense  of a verb is made from the Present Tense form plus auxiliary verbs such as WILL and SHALL.  Often,  the phrase IS GOING plus the Infinitive Form of a verb is used to talk about the future, although it is not a true future tense.  SHALL is used with I or WE (first person) subjects; WILL is used with YOU, HE and THEY subjects (second and third person).  The Future Tense  is used to talk about an action that has not happened yet, but that is expected to happen sometime in the future.  The future can be in a few minutes, tomorrow or next year.
Examples:
“They will park their car on the street.”  Parking their car on the street is an action THEY plan to take.
” We shall wait ten minutes more.”  This puts a definite limit on the length of time WE expect to wait.
“He is going to call his mother tomorrow.”  This tells us what action HE is planning to do in the future.
There are several other combination verb forms, each with its own special purpose and an official grammar title, but we will not cover them in this lesson.  The main purpose for explaining what we have so far is to help you understand a chart like the one below, or to help you understand a listing for a verb in a dictionary where the principle parts of the verb are often given before the definition.  In fact, this is a good reason to look up a verb in a good dictionary – to find out if the verb is irregular and if so, what the irregular forms are.
Infinitive (base) form
Present tense (with 3rd person singular)
Past tense
Present Participle
Past Participle
to park
park, parks (-s)
parked  (-ed)
parking  (-ing)
parked  (-ed)
to sing
sing, sings  (-s)
sang
singing (-ing)
sung
to carry
carry, carries  (-ies)
carried (-ied)
carrying  (-ing)
carried  (-ied)
to write
write, writes  (-s)
wrote
writing (drop e before -ing)
written
to take
take, takes  (-s)
took
taking (drop e before -ing)
taken
to be
am, is (singular), are(plural)
was (3rd person singular), were
being (-ing)
been
to set
set, sets  (-s)
set
setting  (double T, add -ing)
set
to think
think, thinks  (-s)
thought
thinking (-ing)
thought
to drink
drink, drinks (-s)
drank
drinking (-ing)
drunk
to have
have, has
had
having (drop E before -ing)
had
Progressive and Perfect Verb Tenses
A reminder: a tense is a form of the verb that shows the time of the action.
For example, “ate” is a form of the verb “eat”, and it shows the action happened in the past.
“Thinks” is a form of the verb “think”, and it shows the action happens in the present.
There are three Simple Tenses. We call them Simple because they merely express the time of the action.
  These are:
Simple Past (“Lisa worked yesterday.”)
Simple Present (“Lisa works every day.”)
Simple Future (“Lisa will work next week.”)
All these verbs simply state the time of the action (past, present or future).  So far, so good. Here is where things get a little more interesting.
When using the English language you can choose to communicate additional data about the action. Specifically, is the action ongoing or finished?
In the sentence “I am eating lunch right now”, the verb indicates the action is still ongoing – it continues. I am in the middle of having lunch.
In the sentence “I have eaten lunch already”, the verb indicates the action is finished. I am no longer eating lunch.  Now let’s dive a little deeper.
Progressive (Continuous) Tenses
  “Progressive” means “ongoing, continuing”. The action is in progress.  We usually use the Progressive Tenses when we want to emphasis the fact that the action continues.
Present Progressive is a form of the verb that shows the action is in progress.
I am waiting for the bus right now. (The action is in progress at this moment.)
I am writing my third book. (The action is in progress these days.)
Past Progressive is a form of the verb that shows the action was in progress.
Yesterday at five o’clock I was waiting for the bus. (The action was in progress yesterday at five o’clock.)
I was writing my third book the entire summer. (The action was in progress last summer.)
Future Progressive is a form of the verb that shows the action will be in progress.
Tomorrow at nine o’clock I will be waiting for the bus. (The action will be in progress tomorrow at nine o’clock.)
I will be writing my third book the following winter. (The action will be in progress next winter.)
Perfect Tenses
  “Perfect” means “complete, finished”. The action is finished.  We usually use the Perfect Tenses when we want to emphasis the fact that the action is complete.
Present Perfect is a form of the verb that shows the action is finished already.
I have written my homework. (The action is already complete. My homework is finished.)
I have watched this movie already. (The action is already complete. I have the experience of watching this movie.)
Past Perfect is a form of the verb that shows the action was finished already.
I had written my homework before she came. (The action was already complete when she arrived.)
I had watched that movie before she offered to rent it. (I watched the movie, and later she offered to rent it. At that point I already had the experience of watching it.)
Future Perfect is a form of the verb that shows the action will be finished.
By the time she comes, I will have written my homework. (The action will be complete before she arrives.)
We will have watched that movie by midnight. (We will watch the movie, and we will finish watching it before midnight.)
Why do you need to worry about all the different forms?  The best reason is so you can be fairly sure that the person you are writing to will understand exactly what you mean.  If you use the wrong verb form, the reader of your words will not know for sure if something happened but is finished now, or if it is still going on, or if you are not positive that it happened at all.  It is all part of CLEAR, ACCURATE COMMUNICATION.
NOTE: It is more important to use the correct verb forms and tenses than it is to know all the grammar terms.  Please do not be discouraged by terms such as Present Progressive and Past Perfect.  Study the examples given in this lesson.  Read English every time you have the chance.  Try to decide what the verbs are telling you.  Ask questions if you do not understand something.
Exercise A:  Circle the verbs in the following sentences.  Above the verbs, write the tense or form.  Use a good English dictionary or text book to find verbs that are not in the list above.  Examples of tenses or forms:  INFINITIVE = inf., PRESENT = pres.,  PAST = past,  PRESENT PARTICIPLE = pres. part., PAST PARTICIPLE = past part., FUTURE = fut.; PRESENT PROGRESSIVE = pres. prog.; PAST PROGRESSIVE = past prog.; PRESENT PERFECT = pres. perf.; PAST PERFECT = past perf.
1.  Mr. Jones had gone to the store to buy a loaf of bread.
2. I listen to the radio while I do my homework.
3. Steve was driving his new car to work.
4. Everybody in the office was working when the lights went out.
5. Sally said she will write me a letter when she gets to Miami.
6. Have you seen the new television show?
7. Many people drink coffee for breakfast, but others prefer to drink tea.
8. Anna, who sang in the musical stage play, had also sung in her church choir.
9. He is sick now, but he will  be better soon.
10. It has been difficult to learn English without a teacher, but you will succeed someday.
Exercise B:  For practice and for your own information.  Find an English-language newspaper, magazine or book and pick out 10 verbs.  Write those verbs in the correct column in the chart below, then fill in all the principle forms of each verb.  Use a dictionary.  If you need help, ask someone where you live or E-mail us.  Example:  From the instructions for Exercise B, we will choose USE.  USE is in the Present Tense, so that is where we will write it in the chart.  Then we would add all the other forms of USE – Infinitive (TO USE),  Past (USED), Present Participle (USING), and Past Participle (USED).
Infinitive
Present
Past
Present Participle
Past Participle
1.



2.



3.



4.



5.



6.



7.



8.



9.



10.





Answers to Exercise A, Lesson 6:
1.   gone (past participle); had gone (past perfect tense);  to buy (infinitive)
2.  listen (present);  do (present)
3.  driving (present participle); was driving (past progressive tense)
4. working (present participle;  was working (past perfect tense)
5. said (past); will write (future); gets (present, third person singular)
6. seen (past participle); have seen (present perfect tense)
7. drink (present); prefer (present); to drink (infinitive)
8. sang (past); sung (past participle); had sung (past perfect tense)
9. is (present, third person singular); will be (future)
10. been (past participle; has been (present perfect); will succeed (future)

Lesson 7: Pronouncing the English Letters

Vowels: Vowels are letters that are pronounced by forcing air over your vocal cords through your mouth.  It is the shape of your mouth that decides which vowel sound comes out.  There are many tape or video cassette lessons available from schools, libraries and stores which will help you with your pronunciation.  You can also learn a lot by listening to the radio and watching television and films.
Letter
Sounds of the letter
Alternate Spellings
Examples
A  a The “long” sound of this letter is the same as the name of the letter.
a, a+consonant+e, ea, ei, eigh, aigh, ai, ay, ere
able, late, great, heir, weigh, straight, rain, play, where, there
A a The “short” sound of this letter is often found in 3-letter and 4-letter words.
a, augh
ad, bad, cat, dab, fact, gab, hat, lack, mat, rap, sad, tap, yak, laugh, draught
A a The “soft” sound of this letter is like the sound you make when a child is hurt – Aw.
a, aw, augh
father, awful, lawn, taught,
E e The “long” sound of this letter is the same as the name of the letter.
e, e+consonant+e, ee, ea, ie, ei, y 
be, here, cede, meet, bean, thief, receipt, carry, steady
E e The “short” sound of this letter is often found in short words.
e, ea, ai
bet, chef, dead, fed, head, get, led, met, net, red, pez, said, wet, yet
I i The “long” sound of this letter sounds like the name of the letter.
i, y, igh, i+consonant+e, ai
I, my, sigh, ride, aisle, file, cry,
I i The “short” sound of this letter is often found in short words.
i, u
bit, city, click, lid, spin, tin, rip, omit, trip, busy
O o The “long” sound of this letter sounds like the name of the letter.
o, oa, ough, o+consonant+e, ow, 
no, go, boat, coal, though, dough, lone, pole, show, blow
O o The “short” sound of this letter is often found in short words. It is very close to the “soft” A sound.
o, ough
body, cot, clod, flop, bought, shot, mop
U u The “long” sound of this letter sounds like the last part of the name of the letter.
u, oo, ou, ough, ew, ue, o, u+consonant+e, oe
gnu, do, boot, through, flew, glue, rude, shoe, uvula, roof, threw, flue, tune
U u The “short” sound of this letter is often found in short words.
u, oo
but, cut, fun, gun, stud, bum, blood, flood, rump, fuzz
 Diphthongs: No,  this is not a type of dinosaur.  When two vowel sounds blend together in a word, it is called a diphthong.  Sometimes the sound is spelled with two letters and other times one letter does the job.  In fact, many of the Long Vowel sounds in English are called Diphthongs by language experts – A  is really a blending of the A and E sounds, I is really a blending of the Soft A and E sounds, etc.  To make matters more simple, however,  in these lessons, we will treat the Long Vowel sounds as pure sounds.  That leaves us with a few very definite Blended Vowel sounds, or Diphthongs.
Description
Possible spellings
Examples
The “soft” A or the “short” O followed by a “long” U sound.
ou, ow, ough
loud, sprout, cow, plow, bough, clown
A “long” E sound followed by a “long” U sound.
ew, eu,
few, feud
Consonants are letters that are pronounced by forcing air through, over or between the various parts of your mouth: palate, teeth, tongue, lips.  Sometimes the sound is made by stopping the flow of air and then releasing it.  Again, examples of the correct pronunciation of these letters can be found elsewhere.  This lessons will deal with the relationship between spelling and pronunciation.
Consonant
How to pronounce it
Examples
B b
Press both lips together and with your vocal cords vibrating,  open your lips suddenly. baby, boy, bed, bird, table, rabbit, ribbon, black, crab, stable
C c
“Soft” C is a hissing sound with the tip of your tongue pushed against the back of your bottom teeth and the air forced between your tongue and the roof of your mouth. city, cement, ceiling, cell, cyclops, certain, circle, facet, mice
C c
“Hard” C, like the letter “K”, is made by pressing the back of your tongue against top of your throat opening and releasing it suddenly with a puff of air. can, corn, curl, cable, copper, cut, act, bacon, cry, close, cramp
D d
Push the tip of your tongue against the roof of your mouth just behind your front teeth, vibrate your vocal cords and release your tongue. dog, day, dirty, duty, drum, drip, bad, paddle, lid, spread, radar
F f
Press your upper front teeth against your bottom lip. Force air through the opening, then release your teeth from your lip. father, fence, find, forty, funny, flake, fry, wafer, golfer, lift, safe, stiff, muff
G g
To make the “hard” G sound, close the opening at the back of your throat (back of tongue against rear roof of mouth), vibrate your vocal cords and release the pressure of your tongue. game, girl, gone, guppy, bag, mug, sugar, bigger, gravy, glad, twig
G g
To make the “soft” G sound, like the letter “J”, press the front third of your tongue against your upper front teeth and gums, vibrate your vocal cords and release your tongue. giant, gentle, gem, germ, gigantic, widget, suggest, gesture
H h
The letter H is pronounced with your mouth relaxed, your jaw slightly open, and with a puff of air being forced from your throat. hair, heavy, hill, home, hurt, behave, behind, inhale, rehearse
J j
To make the sound of the letter J, like the soft G, press the front third of your tongue against your top front teeth and gums, vibrate your vocal cords and release your tongue. jail, jet, jiffy, jolly, jump, inject, injure, reject, misjudge
K k
To pronounce the K sound, press the back of your tongue against the rear roof of your mouth, then release it with a puff of air. kale, kettle, kick, koala, basket, brisket, bucket, pack, stick, luck (note: the letters C and K often work together in the middle or at the end of words to make a single K sound.)
L l
To pronounce L, put the tip of your tongue against the ridge above your top front teeth, vibrate your vocal cords, then quickly release your tongue. labor, lettuce, lip, love, luck, pilot, pillow, pullet, still, pail, bull, bowl
M m
To pronounce M, press your lips together, vibrate your vocal cords, then open your lips without a puff of air. man, mend, milk, money, mug, woman, camera, simple, am, seem, come
N n
To pronounce N, put the tip of your tongue against the gums behind your top front teeth, raise the center of your tongue, vibrate your vocal cords, and release your tongue without a puff of air. name, net, nickel, not, number, many, pint, sentence, run, pin, man
P p
To pronounce P, put your lips together and release them with a puff of air, without your vocal cords vibrating. pan, pet, pick, pour, punt, rapid, tepid, hoping, strap, step, drop, dump
Q q
Q is always followed by U in English. QU is usually pronounced like KU (with a long U) with the U being held a very short time. quake, question, quick, quote, inquest, require, liquid, sequel
Q q
Sometimes, QU is pronounced like K, usually in the middle or at the end of words. bisque, toque, briquette, croquet
R r
To pronounce R, open your mouth slightly, raise the middle and back of your tongue toward the roof of your mouth without touching it, and vibrate your vocal cords. rain, rent, ripe, rot, run, siren, syrup, sorrow, cereal, far, tear, north, year, fur
S s
To pronounce S, put the tip of your tongue behind your bottom front teeth, raise the rest of your tongue almost to the roof of your mouth, and let air hiss through the narrow opening. sand, set, sick, some, such, basket, fiscal, posture, mustard, pass, miss, rest, yes
S s
At times, S is pronounced like the letter Z, with your mouth in the same position, but now with your vocal cords vibrating. was, wisdom, trees, toes, bores, cows, cleans, tears, pours, claws
T t
To pronounce T, put the tip of your tongue behind your top front teeth and release it with a little puff of air. tape, ten, time, top, tune, water, center, mister, poster, custard, sat, wet, fit, not, cut
V v
To pronounce V, place your top front teeth against your bottom lip (as with F), but then without releasing air,  vibrate your vocal cords and release your teeth from your lip. vase, very, vital, Volvo, waver, never, river, oven, lover, wave, leave, dive, favor
W w
To pronounce W, purse (round) your lips as if you are going to pronounce Long U. Vibrate your vocal cords for a very short U sound, then open your lips to pronounce the next sound in the word. want, west, winter, wove, wool, beware, unwind, lower, tower
X x
X is usually pronounced like a K and S together except for the few words that begin with X, in which case X is pronounced like Z. fax, text, mix, box, deluxe, relax, fixer, xylophone, xenon, xylene
Y y
Y is more like a vowel than a consonant. You pronounce it by forming your mouth to say a Long E sound, vibrate your vocal cords, then quickly go on to pronounce the next vowel sound in the word. yard, yam, yet, year, young, yip, player, lawyer
Z z
To pronounce Z, put the tip of your tongue behind your bottom front teeth and raise the rest of your tongue until it almost touches the roof of your mouth.  Then vibrate your vocal cords and let air escape through the narrow opening. zap, zero, zing, zone, zoo, maze, doze, size, lazy, buzz, faze
CH
To pronounce CH, press the whole width of your tongue against the roof of your mouth behind your top front teeth, then release your tongue just enough to let a wide hiss of air come out. chair, chess, chin, chore, chum, teacher, church, winch, such (Note: many words will use TCH to stand for the CH sound.) watch, fetch, witch, pitcher
SH
To pronounce the SH sound, place the whole width of your tongue close to the roof of your mouth behind your top front teeth, but without touching the roof, then let air slowly escape through the opening. ash, mesh, fish, wash, posh, bush, masher, usher, shape, shin, shop, shut
TH (voiced)
To pronounce the Voiced TH, put the tip of your tongue between your top and bottom front teeth and vibrate your vocal cords, then pull your tongue back to pronounce the rest of the word. than, then, this, there, that, either, weather, other, bather, smooth, clothe, scythe
TH (unvoiced)
To pronounce the Unvoiced TH, put the tip of your tongue between your top and bottom front teeth and let air escape around your tongue, without your vocal cords vibrating. thank, thin, think, thought, thump, therapy, bath, with, moth, path, youth

Lesson 8. Using Capital Letters

English uses capital letters to point out important words.  This is the one element of English grammar that always follows its rules.  There are no lists of exceptions to memorize.  That makes it easier for people who are learning English.  All they need to do is:
  • learn the rules, and
  • follow the rules.
You will see many examples in your everyday life of the rules being violated by advertisers, by graffiti artists and by Internet users.  That does not, however, change the rules.  It is important to write English correctly on applications, in resumes, in business letters and in other formal situations if you want the reader to have a high opinion of you.
Rule 1: All sentences begin with a capital letter.
         a. This is my house. (statement)
b. Are you going to school? (question)
3. Watch out for the truck! (exclamation)
Rule 2: The proper name, the name of a specific person or thing, begins with a capital letter.  All other important words in the name must also start with a capital letter.  Words that do not need to be written with a capital letter unless they are the first word of the name are a, an, and, the, of, to, by, etc.  (Following each proper name are one or more common names of the same type of person or thing which do not need a capital letter.)
  1. Henry David Thoreau (a man, a writer)
  2. Empire State Building (a building, a monument)
  3. Grand Canyon (a canyon, a geographical wonder)
  4. Atlantic Ocean (an ocean, a body of water)
  5. Metropolitan Museum of Art (a museum, an institute)
  6. Ford Explorer (an automobile, a sport utility vehicle)
  7. Harvard University (a college, a university)
  8. Union of South Africa (a country, a union)
  9. Saudi Arabia (a country, a kingdom)
  10. Saturday (a day, the weekend)
  11. September (a month)
  12. Memorial Day (a holiday, a special occasion)
Rule 3: Titles of books, songs, stories, works of art, magazine articles, tests, and other written materials must begin with a capital letter.  Every other important word of the title must also begin with a capital letter.  Words that do not need a capital letter unless they are the first word of the title are a, an, and, of, to, the, etc.
a. Winnie the Pooh
b. To Kill a Mockingbird
c. The Merchant of Venice
d. The Star-spangled Banner
e. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest
f. The New York Times
g. How to Win Friends and Influence People
h. The Carolina Test of Student Ability
Rule 4: The letter I, when used as a pronoun referring to yourself must always be written as a capital letter.
         a. I am not happy.
b. Am I the first person here?
c. Tell me what I have to do.
Rule 5: The first word of a direct quotation must begin with a capital letter.
a. “Who’s been sleeping in my bed?” Pappa Bear cried.
b. The president said, “Ask not what your country can do for you.”
c. The teacher asked, “Can you answer this question?”
Rule 6: Titles of people when used with their names or in place of their names must begin with a capital letter.
         a. My boss is Mister Smith.
b. “Look out, Mister! You’re in the way.”
c. The members of the church waited for Reverend Jones.
d. The captain yelled at Sergeant Harris.
e. The sergeant replied, “Yes, sir, Captain.  I understand.”
f. My favorite queen is Queen Elizabeth of England.
There are other uses for capital letters in English, but these six rules cover most of the situations you will come to in your writing.  I started to write about abbreviations, but the more I thought about them, the more confused I became.  In general, abbreviations (short forms of whole words usually made by using the first letter or letters of the whole word with a period at the end to show the word is not complete) follow the same rules for capital letters as complete words do: if the whole word would begin with a capital, then so would the abbreviation.
a. My boss is Mr. Smith.
b. The members of the church waited for Rev. Jones.
c. The captain yelled at Sgt. Harris.
d. I work for American Telephone and Telegraph. (I work for A.T.&T.).
Certain factors have made the situation much more confusing.  The United States has adopted a two-letter code for all of the states.  Pennsylvania used to be abbreviated as Penna. or Pa.  Now it is PA  .  California used to be Cal. or Calif., but now it is CA  .  Advertisers add or take away capital letters whenever they feel like it in a attempt to make their ads more effective.  The internet with its domain names and e-mail addresses adding or deleting capital letters according to the requirements of a variety of computer software protocols has also thrown away the traditional grammar rules.
But in spite of all these factors, the rules of correct writing remain the same.  Follow them and you will be seen as an intelligent, well-educated person by whoever reads what you write.  (Unless you write stupid things correctly.)



Exercise A: Re-write these sentences on the lines and put capital letters where they belong.
1. the mayor of san juan, mayor ortega, decided to retire sunday, july 16.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
2. my friend, tom wilson, bought a new honda accord last week in san francisco.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
3. yesterday, i finished reading lord of the rings.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
4. the president of general motors was interviewed in the july issue of newsweek.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
5. david johnson drove his chevy blazer off the delaware memorial bridge last friday.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
6. when i opened the new york times, i read that lieutenant martin bailey had accused his commanding officer, colonel dunlap, of selling secret information to a north korean agent.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
7. alan attended a lecture by professor c. r. klein on his treatise, “chemical properties of popular diet foods.”
____________________________________________________________________________________________
8. mary yelled to her little brother, “shut the door! it’s freezing in here.”
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Answers to Exercise A: Following are only the words that should have been written with a capital letter.
1. The, San Juan, Mayor Ortega, Sunday, July
2. My, Tom Wilson, Honda Accord, San Francisco
3. Yesterday, I, Lord, Rings
4. The, General Motors, July, Newsweek
5. David Johnson, Chevy Blazer, Delaware Memorial Bridge, Friday
6. When, I, New York Times, I, Lieutenant Martin Bailey, Colonel Dunlap, North Korean
7. Alan, Professor C. R. Klein, “Chemical Properties,  Popular Diet Foods
8. Mary, Shut, It’s

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আপনারা সামান্য একটু সময় ব্যয় করে ,শুধু এক বার নিচের লিংকে ক্লিক করে এই কালেকশ গুলোর মধ্যে অবস্থিত বই ও সফটওয়্যার এর নাম সমূহের উপর চোখ বুলিয়ে 👓👀 নিন।”তাহলেই বুঝে যবেন কেন এই ফাইল গুলো আপনার কালেকশনে রাখা দরকার! আপনার আজকের এই ব্যয়কৃত সামান্য সময় ভবিষ্যতে আপনার অনেক কষ্ট লাঘব করবে ও আপনার অনেকে সময় বাঁচিয়ে দিবে।
বিশ্বাস করুন আর নাই করুনঃ-“বিভিন্ন ক্যাটাগরির এই কালেকশ গুলোর মধ্যে দেওয়া বাংলা ও ইংলিশ বই, সফটওয়্যার ও টিউটোরিয়াল এর কালেকশন দেখে আপনি হতবাক হয়ে যাবেন !”
আপনি যদি বর্তমানে কম্পিউটার ব্যবহার করেন ও ভবিষ্যতেও কম্পিউটার সাথে যুক্ত থাকবেন তাহলে এই ডিভিডি গুলো আপনার অবশ্যই আপনার কালেকশনে রাখা দরকার !
মোট কথা আপনাদের কম্পিউটারের বিভিন্ন সমস্যার চিরস্থায়ী সমাধান ও কম্পিউটারের জন্য প্রয়োজনীয় সব বই, সফটওয়্যার ও টিউটোরিয়াল এর সার্বিক সাপোর্ট দিতে আমার খুব কার্যকর একটা উদ্যোগ হচ্ছে এই ডিভিডি প্যাকেজ গুলো।আশা করি এই কালেকশন গুলো শিক্ষার্থীদের সকল জ্ঞানের চাহিদা পূরন করবে…!
আমার আসল উদ্দেশ্য হল, কম্পিউটার ও মোবাইল এইডেড লার্নিং ডিভিডি কার্যক্রম এর মাধ্যমে সফটওয়্যার, টিটোরিয়াল ও এইচডি কালার পিকচার নির্ভর ই-বু বা বইয়ের সহযোগিতায় শিক্ষাগ্রহন প্রক্রিয়াকে খুব সহজ ও আনন্দদায়ক করা।
এবং সকল স্টুডেন্ট ও টিচারকে কম্পিউটার ও মোবাইল প্রযুক্তির সম্পৃক্তকরণ এবং সকল শিক্ষার্থী ও শিক্ষকদের প্রযুক্তিবান্ধব করা এবং একটা বিষয় ক্লিয়ার করে বুঝিয়ে দেওয়া যে প্রযুক্তি শিক্ষাকে আনন্দদায়ক করে এবং জ্ঞান অর্জনের প্রতি আকর্ষণ বৃদ্ধি করে…
🎯 কালেকশ সম্পর্কে বিস্তারিত 👀জানতেঃ নিচের লিংকে 👆ক্লিক করুন
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